Health Literacy and Numeracy: Workshop Summary (2014) – National Research Council

Posted on April 4, 2014. Filed under: Patient Participation | Tags: , , |

Health Literacy and Numeracy: Workshop Summary (2014) – National Research Council

National Research Council. Health Literacy and Numeracy: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.

“Description

Although health literacy is commonly defined as an individual trait, it does not depend on the skills of individuals alone. Health literacy is the product of the interaction between individuals’ capacities and the health literacy-related demands and complexities of the health care system. Specifically, the ability to understand, evaluate, and use numbers is important to making informed health care choices.

Health Literacy and Numeracy is the summary of a workshop convened by The Institute of Medicine Roundtable on Health Literacy in July 2013 to discuss topics related to numeracy, including the effects of ill health on cognitive capacity, issues with communication of health information to the public, and communicating numeric information for decision making. This report includes a paper commissioned by the Roundtable, “Numeracy and the Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges,” that discusses research findings about people’s numeracy skill levels; the kinds of numeracy skills that are needed to select a health plan, choose treatments, and understand medication instructions; and how providers should communicate with those with low numeracy skills. The paper was featured in the workshop and served as the basis of discussion.”

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Technological Challenges in Antibiotic Discovery and Development: A Workshop Summary – National Research Council [US] – 2014

Posted on January 29, 2014. Filed under: Infectious Diseases | Tags: , , |

Technological Challenges in Antibiotic Discovery and Development: A Workshop Summary – National Research Council [US] – 2014

Authors: Douglas Friedman and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs; Chemical Sciences Roundtable; Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

“Description

Technological Challenges in Antibiotic Discovery and Development is the summary of a workshop convened by the Chemical Sciences Roundtable in September 2013 to explore the current state of antibiotic discovery and examine the technology available to facilitate development. Through formal presentations and panel discussions, participants from academia, industry, federal research agencies discussed the technical challenges present and the incentives and disincentives industry faces in antibiotic development, and identified novel approaches to antibiotic discovery.

Antibiotic resistance is a serious and growing problem in modern medicine and it is emerging as a pre-eminent public health threat. Each year in the United States alone, at least two million acquire serious infections with bacteria that are resistant to one or more antibiotics, and at least 23,000 people die annually as a direct result of these antibiotic-resistant infections. In addition to the toll on human life, antibiotic-resistant infections add considerable and avoidable costs to the already overburdened U.S. health care system. This report explores the challenges in overcoming antibiotic resistance, screening for new antibiotics, and delivering them to the sites of infection in the body. The report also discusses a path forward to develop the next generation of potent antimicrobial compounds capable of once again tilting the battle against microbial pathogens in favor of humans. Technological Challenges in Antibiotic Discovery and Development gives a broad view of the landscape of antibiotic development and the technological challenges and barriers to be overcome.”

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Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy – National Research Council [US] – 2 November 2011

Posted on November 3, 2011. Filed under: Health Informatics, Research | Tags: , |

Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy – National Research Council [US] – 2 November 2011

Committee on a Framework for Development a New Taxonomy of Disease; National Research Council

ISBN-10: 0-309-22222-2    ISBN-13: 978-0-309-22222-8

“WASHINGTON — A new data network that integrates emerging research on the molecular makeup of diseases with clinical data on individual patients could drive the development of a more accurate classification of disease and ultimately enhance diagnosis and treatment, says a new report from the National Research Council.  The “new taxonomy” that emerges would define diseases by their underlying molecular causes and other factors in addition to their traditional physical signs and symptoms.  The report adds that the new data network could also improve biomedical research by enabling scientists to access patients’ information during treatment while still protecting their rights.  This would allow the marriage of molecular research and clinical data at the point of care, as opposed to research information continuing to reside primarily in academia.”

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The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials – Panel on Handling Missing Data in Clinical Trials; National Research Council [US] – July 2010

Posted on July 27, 2010. Filed under: Research | Tags: , |

The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials – Panel on Handling Missing Data in Clinical Trials; National Research Council [US] – July 2010
ISBN-10: 0-309-15814-1
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-15814-5

“Randomized clinical trials are the primary tool for evaluating new medical interventions. Randomization provides for a fair comparison between treatment and control groups, balancing out, on average, distributions of known and unknown factors among the participants. Unfortunately, these studies often lack a substantial percentage of data. This missing data reduces the benefit provided by the randomization and introduces potential biases in the comparison of the treatment groups.

Missing data can arise for a variety of reasons, including the inability or unwillingness of participants to meet appointments for evaluation. And in some studies, some or all of data collection ceases when participants discontinue study treatment. Existing guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials, and the analysis of the resulting data, provide only limited advice on how to handle missing data. Thus, approaches to the analysis of data with an appreciable amount of missing values tend to be ad hoc and variable.

The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials concludes that a more principled approach to design and analysis in the presence of missing data is both needed and possible. Such an approach needs to focus on two critical elements: (1) careful design and conduct to limit the amount and impact of missing data and (2) analysis that makes full use of information on all randomized participants and is based on careful attention to the assumptions about the nature of the missing data underlying estimates of treatment effects. In addition to the highest priority recommendations, the book offers more detailed recommendations on the conduct of clinical trials and techniques for analysis of trial data.”

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Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience: Workshop Summary – National Academies Press, 2009

Posted on July 23, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: , , , |

Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience: Workshop Summary – National Academies Press, 2009

“Social Network Analysis (SNA) is the identification of the relationships and attributes of members, key actors, and groups that social networks comprise. The National Research Council, at the request of the Department of Homeland Security, held a two-day workshop on the use of SNA for the purpose of building community disaster resilience. The workshop, summarized in this volume, was designed to provide guidance to the DHS on a potential research agenda that would increase the effectiveness of SNA for improving community disaster resilience.

The workshop explored the state of the art in SNA and its applications in the identification, construction, and strengthening of networks within U.S. communities. Workshop participants discussed current work in SNA focused on characterizing networks; the theories, principles and research applicable to the design or strengthening of networks; the gaps in knowledge that prevent the application of SNA to the construction of networks; and research areas that could fill those gaps. Elements of a research agenda to support the design, development, and implementation of social networks for the specific purpose of strengthening community resilience against natural and human-made disasters were discussed.”

ISBN-10: 0-309-14094-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-14094-2

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