Crisis Standards of Care – Summary of a Workshop Series – Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events – May 2010

Posted on May 18, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management, Emergency Medicine, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: , , , |

Crisis Standards of Care – Summary of a Workshop Series – Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events – May 2010

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2010. Crisis standards of care: Summary of a workshop series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.  (pdf full text)

“In recent years, a number of federal, state, and local efforts have taken place to develop crisis standards of care protocols and policies for use in conditions of overwhelming resource scarcity. Those involved in these efforts have begun to carefully consider these difficult issues and to develop plans that are ethical, consistent with the community’s values, and implementable during a crisis. These planning efforts are essential because, absent careful planning, there is enormous potential for confusion, chaos, and flawed decision making in a catastrophic public health emergency or disaster.

However, although these efforts have accomplished a tremendous amount in just a few years, a great deal remains to be done in even the most advanced plan. Furthermore, the efforts have mainly been taking place independently, leading to a lack of consistency across neighboring jurisdictions and unnecessary duplication of effort. Lastly, many states have not yet substantially begun to develop policies and protocols for crisis standards of care during a mass casualty event.

These issues prompted the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events (Preparedness Forum) to organize a series of regional workshops on this topic. These workshops were held in Irvine, CA; Orlando, FL; New York, NY; and Chicago, IL, between March and May of 2009.”

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Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World. Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 12 March 2010

Posted on March 15, 2010. Filed under: Infectious Diseases | Tags: , , |

Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World. Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 12 March 2010

Full text at National Academies Press
 
“Type: Workshop Summary
Topics: Diseases, Global Health, Public Health
Activity: Forum on Microbial Threats
Board: Board on Global Health
Note: Workshop Summaries contain the opinion of the presenters, but do NOT reflect the conclusions of the IOM. Learn more about the differences between Workshop Summaries and Consensus Reports.
 
Modern transportation allows people, animals, and plants—and the pathogens they carry—to travel more easily than ever before. The ease and speed of travel, tourism, and international trade connect once-remote areas with one another, eliminating many of the geographic and cultural barriers that once limited the spread of disease. Because of our global interconnectedness through transportation, tourism and trade, infectious diseases emerge more frequently; spread greater distances; pass more easily between humans and animals; and evolve into new and more virulent strains.
 
The IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted the workshop “Globalization, Movement of Pathogens (and Their Hosts) and the Revised International Health Regulations” December 16-17, 2008 in order to explore issues related to infectious disease spread in a “borderless” world. Participants discussed the global emergence, establishment, and surveillance of infectious diseases; the complex relationship between travel, trade, tourism, and the spread of infectious diseases; national and international policies for mitigating disease movement locally and globally; and obstacles and opportunities for detecting and containing these potentially wide-reaching and devastating.”

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Evaluating Occupational Health and Safety Research Programs: Framework and Next Steps – US – August 2009

Posted on August 26, 2009. Filed under: Occupational Hlth Safety, Research | Tags: , |

Evaluating Occupational Health and Safety Research Programs: Framework and Next Steps
Committee on the Review of NIOSH Research Programs; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council
US National Academies Press, 2009
ISBN-10: 0-309-13795-0
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13795-9

Description:
“Each year, approximately 5,000 fatal work-related injuries and 4 million non-fatal injuries and illnesses occur in the United States. This number represents both unnecessary human suffering and high economic costs. In order to assist in better evaluating workplace safety and create safer work environments, the Institute of Medicine conducted a series of evaluations of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research programs, assessing the relevance and impact of NIOSH’s work on improving worker safety and health.”

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A Review of the HHS Family Planning Program: Mission, Management, and Measurement of Results – US – August 2009

Posted on August 11, 2009. Filed under: Health Mgmt Policy Planning | Tags: , , , |

A Review of the HHS Family Planning Program: Mission, Management, and Measurement of Results
Adrienne Stith Butler and Ellen Wright Clayton, Editors; Committee on a Comprehensive Review of the HHS Office of Family Planning Title X Program; Institute of Medicine
ISBN-10: 0-309-13117-0
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13117-9

“A Review of the HHS Family Planning Program provides a broad evaluation of the Title X family planning program since its establishment in 1970. The program successfully provides family planning services to its target audience of low-income individuals, but there is room for improvement. While the program’s core goals are apparent, a secondary set of changing priorities has emerged without a clear, evidence-based strategic process. Also, funding for the program has increased in actual dollars, but has not kept pace with inflation or increased costs. Several aspects of the program’s structure could be improved to increase the ability of Title X to meet the needs of its target population. At the same time, the extent to which the program meets those needs cannot be assessed without a greater capacity for long-term data collection.

A Review of the HHS Family Planning Program recommends several specific steps to enhance the management and improve the quality of the program, as well as to demonstrate its direct contribution to important end results, such as reducing rates of unintended pregnancy, cervical cancer, and infertility. The book will guide the Office of Family Planning toward improving the effectiveness of the program. Other parties who will find the research and recommendations valuable include programs receiving Title X funding from the Office of Family Planning, policy makers, researchers, and professional organizations.”

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Leadership Commitments to Improve Value in Healthcare: Toward Common Ground: Workshop Summary – National Academies Press – 2009

Posted on August 1, 2009. Filed under: Evidence Based Practice, Health Mgmt Policy Planning, US Health System Reform | Tags: , |

Leadership Commitments to Improve Value in Healthcare: Toward Common Ground: Workshop Summary
Authors: LeighAnne Olsen, W. Alexander Goolsby, and J. Michael McGinnis; Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine, Institute of Medicine Published by National Academies Press, 2009 – title is forthcoming

“This volume reports on discussions among multiple stakeholders about ways they might help transform health care in the United States. The U.S. healthcare system consists of a complex network of decentralized and loosely associated organizations, services, relationships, and participants. Each of the healthcare system’s component sectors–patients, healthcare professionals, healthcare delivery organizations, healthcare product developers, clinical investigators and evaluators, regulators, insurers, employers and employees, and individuals involved in information technology–conducts activities that support a common goal: to improve patient health and wellbeing. Implicit in this goal is the commitment of each stakeholder group to contribute to the evidence base for health care, that is, to assist with the development and application of information about the efficacy, safety, effectiveness, value, and appropriateness of the health care delivered.”

ISBN-10: 0-309-11053-X
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-11053-2

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Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience: Workshop Summary – National Academies Press, 2009

Posted on July 23, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: , , , |

Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience: Workshop Summary – National Academies Press, 2009

“Social Network Analysis (SNA) is the identification of the relationships and attributes of members, key actors, and groups that social networks comprise. The National Research Council, at the request of the Department of Homeland Security, held a two-day workshop on the use of SNA for the purpose of building community disaster resilience. The workshop, summarized in this volume, was designed to provide guidance to the DHS on a potential research agenda that would increase the effectiveness of SNA for improving community disaster resilience.

The workshop explored the state of the art in SNA and its applications in the identification, construction, and strengthening of networks within U.S. communities. Workshop participants discussed current work in SNA focused on characterizing networks; the theories, principles and research applicable to the design or strengthening of networks; the gaps in knowledge that prevent the application of SNA to the construction of networks; and research areas that could fill those gaps. Elements of a research agenda to support the design, development, and implementation of social networks for the specific purpose of strengthening community resilience against natural and human-made disasters were discussed.”

ISBN-10: 0-309-14094-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-14094-2

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Ensuring the Integrity, Accessibility, and Stewardship of Research Data in the Digital Age – National Academy of Sciences (US) 2009

Posted on July 23, 2009. Filed under: Research | Tags: , |

Ensuring the Integrity, Accessibility, and Stewardship of Research Data in the Digital Age – National Academies Press  (US) 2009

“As digital technologies are expanding the power and reach of research, they are also raising complex issues. These include complications in ensuring the validity of research data; standards that do not keep pace with the high rate of innovation; restrictions on data sharing that reduce the ability of researchers to verify results and build on previous research; and huge increases in the amount of data being generated, creating severe challenges in preserving that data for long-term use.

Ensuring the Integrity, Accessibility, and Stewardship of Research Data in the Digital Age examines the consequences of the changes affecting research data with respect to three issues – integrity, accessibility, and stewardship-and finds a need for a new approach to the design and the management of research projects. The report recommends that all researchers receive appropriate training in the management of research data, and calls on researchers to make all research data, methods, and other information underlying results publicly accessible in a timely manner. The book also sees the stewardship of research data as a critical long-term task for the research enterprise and its stakeholders. Individual researchers, research institutions, research sponsors, professional societies, and journals involved in scientific, engineering, and medical research will find this book an essential guide to the principles affecting research data in the digital age.”

ISBN-10: 0-309-13680-6
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13680-8

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Initial National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research – Institute of Medicine (US) – 30 June 2009

Posted on July 1, 2009. Filed under: Health Systems Improvement, Research | Tags: , , , , , |

Initial National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research – Institute of Medicine (US) – 30 June 2009

Full text of the report from National Academies Press

“Clinical research presents health care providers with information on the natural history and clinical presentations of disease as well as diagnostic and treatment options. Consumers, patients, and caregivers also require this information to decide how to evaluate and treat their conditions. All too often, the information necessary to inform these medical decisions is incomplete or unavailable, resulting in more than half of the treatments delivered today lacking clear evidence of effectiveness.

Comparative effectiveness research (CER) identifies what works best for which patients under what circumstances. Congress, in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, tasked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to recommend national priorities for research questions to be addressed by CER and supported by ARRA funds. In its 2009 report, Initial National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research, the authoring committee establishes a working definition of CER, develops a priority list of research topics to be undertaken with ARRA funding using broad stakeholder input, and identifies the necessary requirements to support a robust and sustainable CER enterprise. The full list of priorities and recommendations can be found in the below report brief.”

2 articles on this from the NEJM – 30 June 2009

Prioritizing Comparative-Effectiveness Research — IOM Recommendations
J.K. Iglehart

Comparative-Effectiveness Research — Implications of the Federal Coordinating Council’s Report
P.H. Conway and C. Clancy

2 articles from the Annals of Internal Medicine

Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Report From the Institute of Medicine
Harold C. Sox, MD, Editor, and Sheldon Greenfield, MD
4 August 2009  Volume 151 Issue 3  Annals of Internal Medicine

Rethinking Randomized Clinical Trials for Comparative Effectiveness Research: The Need for Transformational Change
Bryan R. Luce, PhD, MBA; Judith M. Kramer, MD, MS; Steven N. Goodman, MD, MHS, PhD; Jason Connor, PhD; Sean Tunis, MD, MSc; Danielle Whicher, MHS; and J. Sanford Schwartz, MD
4 August 2009  Volume 151 Issue 3    Annals of Internal Medicine

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Combating Tobacco Use in Military and Veteran Populations – US – 2009

Posted on June 29, 2009. Filed under: Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: , , |

Combating Tobacco Use in Military and Veteran Populations – US – 2009
Authors: Stuart Bondurant and Roberta Wedge, Editors; Committee on Smoking Cessation in Military and Veteran Populations; Institute of Medicine.  National Academies Press   ISBN-10: 0-309-13767-5    ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13767-6

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