Disaster Management

Geotargeted Alerts and Warnings: Report of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps – National Academies Press – 2013

Posted on September 20, 2013. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

Geotargeted Alerts and Warnings: Report of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps – National Academies Press – 2013

“Authors
Committee on Geotargeted Disaster Alerts and Warnings: A Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps; Computer Science and Telecommunications Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

Description
Geotargeted Alerts and Warnings: Report of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps is the summary of a February, 2013 workshop convened by the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council to examine precise geotargeting of public alerts and warnings using social media. The workshop brought together social science researchers, technologists, emergency management professionals, and other experts to explore what is known about how the public responds to geotargeted alerts and warnings, technologies and techniques for enhancing the geotargeting of alerts and warnings, and open research questions about how to effectively use geotargeted alerts and warnings and technology gaps. This report considers the potential for more precise geographical targeting to improve the effectiveness of disaster alerts and warnings; examines the opportunities presented by current and emerging technologies to create, deliver, and display alerts and warnings with greater geographical precision; considers the circumstances where more granular targeting would be useful; and examines the potential roles of federal, state, and local agencies and private sector information and communications providers in delivering more targeted alerts.”

Advertisements
Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on Geotargeted Alerts and Warnings: Report of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps – National Academies Press – 2013 )

Evidence Aid – website for use following humanitarian crises, natural disasters, major healthcare emergencies

Posted on July 30, 2013. Filed under: Disaster Management, Evidence Based Practice |

Evidence Aid – website for use following humanitarian crises, natural disasters, major healthcare emergencies

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on Evidence Aid – website for use following humanitarian crises, natural disasters, major healthcare emergencies )

Emergency Planning in Health Care: Scoping study of the international literature, local information resources and key stakeholders – NHS Institute for Health Research – November 2012

Posted on November 21, 2012. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: , |

Emergency Planning in Health Care: Scoping study of the international literature, local information resources and key stakeholders – NHS Institute for Health Research – November 2012

Final report 
Executive Summary
Appendix 1

Extract

“There are many different ways of preparing and responding to emergencies around the world and a lot has also been written about it. However, we do not how reliable this information is and it is not clear which emergency planning interventions work. Furthermore, much of the work has been done outside the UK, so again it is not certain whether they will apply in our UK context. At least 11 major incidents happen each year in the UK and a significant amount of money is spent planning and preparing for them. There is therefore a real need to understand how we can best plan and prepare services to cope with major incidents and emergencies.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on Emergency Planning in Health Care: Scoping study of the international literature, local information resources and key stakeholders – NHS Institute for Health Research – November 2012 )

Health Information Exchange in Disaster Preparedness and Response – Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology – July 2012

Posted on September 27, 2012. Filed under: Disaster Management, Health Informatics | Tags: |

Health Information Exchange in Disaster Preparedness and Response – Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology –  July 2012

Extract from the executive summary

“To date, there has been limited research on how HIE could be leveraged to provide timely access to clinical information in response to a disaster. The best way to ensure that health information can be accessed during an emergency is to ensure that it can be accessed during routine care. As connectivity through HIE expands, opportunities to link exchange efforts with emergency preparedness and response to provide health information to providers and patients in response to a disaster will expand. This work reflects the reality, however, that during the interim period of individual state efforts and varying HIE implementation timelines, a phased approach has been deemed by this project to be the most appropriate strategy. In this regard it is important to build on the lessons learned over many years, including the work done to access medical information following the displacement of more than a million people during and after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on Health Information Exchange in Disaster Preparedness and Response – Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology – July 2012 )

Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative – National Academies Press – 2012

Posted on August 2, 2012. Filed under: Disaster Management |

Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative – National Academies Press – 2012
http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13457

ISBN-10: 0-309-26147-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-26147-0
Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP)

“No person or place is immune from disasters or disaster-related losses. Infectious disease outbreaks, acts of terrorism, social unrest, or financial disasters in addition to natural hazards can all lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and its communities. Communities and the nation thus face difficult fiscal, social, cultural, and environmental choices about the best ways to ensure basic security and quality of life against hazards, deliberate attacks, and disasters. Beyond the unquantifiable costs of injury and loss of life from disasters, statistics for 2011 alone indicate economic damages from natural disasters in the United States exceeded $55 billion, with 14 events costing more than a billion dollars in damages each.

One way to reduce the impacts of disasters on the nation and its communities is to invest in enhancing resilience–the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse events. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative addresses the broad issue of increasing the nation’s resilience to disasters. This book defines “national resilience”, describes the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters, and frames the main issues related to increasing resilience in the United States. It also provide goals, baseline conditions, or performance metrics for national resilience and outlines additional information, data, gaps, and/or obstacles that need to be addressed to increase the nation’s resilience to disasters. Additionally, the book’s authoring committee makes recommendations about the necessary approaches to elevate national resilience to disasters in the United States.

Enhanced resilience allows better anticipation of disasters and better planning to reduce disaster losses-rather than waiting for an event to occur and paying for it afterward. Disaster Resilience confronts the topic of how to increase the nation’s resilience to disasters through a vision of the characteristics of a resilient nation in the year 2030. Increasing disaster resilience is an imperative that requires the collective will of the nation and its communities. Although disasters will continue to occur, actions that move the nation from reactive approaches to disasters to a proactive stance where communities actively engage in enhancing resilience will reduce many of the broad societal and economic burdens that disasters can cause.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative – National Academies Press – 2012 )

National Emergency Alert System Goes Live – GovTech – 10 April 2012

Posted on April 12, 2012. Filed under: Disaster Management, Health Informatics |

National Emergency Alert System Goes Live – GovTech – 10 April 2012

By Sarah Rich

“After much anticipation, the Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS) went live last weekend, a first-of-its-kind national alert system in the U.S. that allows the public to receive major emergency alert notifications on their mobile phones without having to sign up or pay for them.

CMAS is the interface to the Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) service that wireless phone carriers will roll out in the U.S. this year. The system was developed through a partnership between the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the FCC and wireless phone carriers to increase public safety nationwide, according to FEMA.

Through the CMAS system, authorized public safety authorities will be able to use FEMA’s Open Platform for Emergency Networks (IPAWS-OPEN) to send geographically specific emergency alert notifications similar to text messages to the public.

Alerts can be a maximum of 90 characters, and in most cases, will only contain basic information such as the type of emergency, when the alert will expire and a recommended course of action. Cellphone carriers will sell mobile phones with the capability to receive CMAS notifications, said Rick Wimberly, president of Galain Solutions Inc., and blogger for Emergency Management magazine, Government Technology’s sister publication. Carriers like AT&T have already provided a list of models that can receive CMAS notifications.”

… continues on the GovTech site

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on National Emergency Alert System Goes Live – GovTech – 10 April 2012 )

Crisis Standards of Care: A Systems Framework for Catastrophic Disaster Response – Institute of Medicine – 21 March 2012

Posted on March 22, 2012. Filed under: Clin Governance / Risk Mgmt / Quality, Disaster Management | Tags: , |

Crisis Standards of Care: A Systems Framework for Catastrophic Disaster Response – Institute of Medicine – 21 March 2012

Full text

“In 2011 alone, a tornado devastated Joplin, Missouri, and earthquakes rocked New Zealand and Japan, underscoring how quickly and completely health systems can be overwhelmed. Disasters can stress health care systems to the breaking point and disrupt delivery of vital medical services.

At the request of the HHS, the IOM formed a committee in 2009, which developed guidance that health officials could use to establish and implement standards of care during disasters. In its first report, the committee defined “crisis standards of care” (CSC) as a state of being that indicates a substantial change in health care operations and the level of care that can be delivered in a public health emergency, justified by specific circumstances. During disasters, medical care must promote the use of limited resources to benefit the population as a whole.

In this report, the IOM examines the effect of its 2009 report, and develops vital templates to guide the efforts of professionals and organizations responsible for CSC planning and implementations. Integrated planning for a coordinated response by state and local governments, EMS, health care organizations, and health care providers in the community is critical to successfully responding to disasters. The report provides a foundation of underlying principles, steps needed to achieve implementation, and the pillars of the emergency response system, each separate and yet together upholding the jurisdictions that have the overarching authority for ensuring that CSC planning and response occurs.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on Crisis Standards of Care: A Systems Framework for Catastrophic Disaster Response – Institute of Medicine – 21 March 2012 )

National Preparedness: Countermeasures for Thermal Burns – GAO – 22 February 2012

Posted on February 29, 2012. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

National Preparedness: Countermeasures for Thermal Burns – GAO – 22 February 2012

Summary

Extract

“The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the federal agency primarily responsible for identifying and supporting the development and acquisition of the medical countermeasures needed to prevent or mitigate potential health effects from exposure to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) agents and other terrorist threats. In addition to identifying these countermeasures, including those for thermal burns, HHS also has responsibility for engaging with industry to research and develop them and, ultimately, for acquiring them for the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile (SNS), if appropriate.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on National Preparedness: Countermeasures for Thermal Burns – GAO – 22 February 2012 )

Barriers to Integrating Crisis Standards of Care Principles into International Disaster Response Plans – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 23 January 2012

Posted on January 27, 2012. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

Barriers to Integrating Crisis Standards of Care Principles into International Disaster Response Plans – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 23 January 2012

“When a nation or region prepares for public health emergencies such as a pandemic influenza, a large-scale earthquake, or any major disaster scenario in which the health system may be destroyed or stressed to its limits, it is important to describe how standards of care would change due to shortages of critical resources. Crisis standards of care can be defined as the level of health and medical care capable of being delivered during a catastrophic event. Nations and regions need a robust system to provide information to those who are involved in catastrophic events.

At the 17th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine, held May 31-June 3, 2011, in Beijing, the IOM Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness sponsored a session that focused on the promise of and challenges to integrating crisis standards of care principles into international disaster response plans. This document summarizes the workshop.”

 

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on Barriers to Integrating Crisis Standards of Care Principles into International Disaster Response Plans – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 23 January 2012 )

Animal Models for Assessing Countermeasures to Bioterrorism Agents – National Research Council [US] – 2011

Posted on December 7, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management, Pathology | Tags: , |

Animal Models for Assessing Countermeasures to Bioterrorism Agents – National Research Council [US] – 2011
ISBN-10: 0-309-21909-4
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-21909-9

“The Transformational Medical Technologies (TMT) has been a unique component of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) medical biodefense efforts since 2006. Its mission is to advance countermeasure research and development in support of the broader goal of the DoD to protect warfighters from emerging infectious diseases and future genetically engineered biological weapons. The TMT, using advanced science and technology approaches, focused on the development of roadspectrum countermeasures that target common host and pathogen pathways or enhance the host’s immune response. Many of these pathogens are lethal or cause such debilitating diseases in humans that it is ethically inappropriate to test the efficacy of these countermeasures in human volunteers. In lieu of human participants, these products may be tested in animals and approved for human use under the provisions of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s 2002 Animal Rule. The reliance on animal models for the development and licensure of medical countermeasures against biothreats is challenging for a number of reasons.

The ad hoc Committee on Animal Models for Assessing Countermeasures to Bioterrorism Agents prepared a consensus report that would address the challenges stemming from developing and testing medical countermeasures against biothreat agents in animal models. Animal Models for Assessing Countermeasures to Bioterrorism Agents evaluates how well the existing TMT-employed or candidate animal models reflect the pathophysiology, clinical picture, and treatment of human disease as related to the agents of interest. The report addresses the process and/or feasibility of developing new animal models for critical biodefense research, placing emphasis on the need for a robust and expeditious validation process in terms of the FDA’s Animal Rule. The report also evaluates alternatives to the use of animal models based on the premise of the Three Rs.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on Animal Models for Assessing Countermeasures to Bioterrorism Agents – National Research Council [US] – 2011 )

Information Sharing and Collaboration: Applications to Integrated Biosurveillance – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 30 November 2011

Posted on December 1, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management, Health Informatics | Tags: , |

Information Sharing and Collaboration: Applications to Integrated Biosurveillance – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 30 November 2011

full text 

“After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and subsequent anthrax mailings, the U.S. government prioritized a biosurveillance strategy aimed at detecting, monitoring, and characterizing national security health threats in human and animal populations, food, water, agriculture, and the environment. A variety of agencies share biosurveillance responsibilities, and efforts have been made to improve national biosurveillance through data exchanges and collaboration. However, gaps and challenges in biosurveillance efforts and integration of biosurveillance activities remain.

September 8-9, 2011, the IOM held a workshop to explore the information-sharing and collaboration processes needed for the nation’s integrated biosurveillance strategy. Presenters at the workshop

examined the strengths and limitations of different models of information analysis, control, and distribution;
considered examples and lessons learned from other similar information sharing collaborations;
explored approaches to developing an effective and sustainable concept of operations that includes join rules, procedures, and performance measures; and
illustrated the value added in collaboration through scenarios and real-life examples.

This document summarizes the workshop.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on Information Sharing and Collaboration: Applications to Integrated Biosurveillance – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 30 November 2011 )

Prepositioning Antibiotics for Anthrax – Institute of Medicine – 30 September 2011

Posted on October 3, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management, Infection Control, Infectious Diseases | Tags: , |

Prepositioning Antibiotics for Anthrax – Institute of Medicine – 30 September 2011

“If terrorists released Bacillus anthracis over a large city, hundreds of thousands of people could be at risk of the deadly disease anthrax – caused by the B anthracis spores – unless they had rapid access to antibiotic medical countermeasures (MCM). The spores can be inhaled, be ingested, or come into contact with the skin. Inhalational anthrax is considered the most severe bioterrorism threat because the spores can travel significant distances through the air, and it has the highest mortality rate – approaching 100 percent if untreated. Although plans for rapidly delivering MCM to a large number of people following an anthrax attack have been significantly enhanced over the last decade, many public health authorities and policy experts fear that the nation’s current systems and plans are insufficient to respond to the most challenging scenarios, such as a very large-scale anthrax attack or an attack on multiple cities.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response commissioned the IOM to examine the potential uses, benefits, and disadvantages of strategies for prepositioning antibiotics. This involves storing antibiotics close to or in the possession of the people who would need rapid access to them should an attack occur. The IOM defined and evaluated three categories of prepositioning strategies that could complement existing, centralized stockpiling strategies, including the Strategic National Stockpile maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

Forward-Deployed MCM: MCM stored near the locations from which they will be dispensed
Cached MCM: MCM stored at the locations from which they will be dispensed, such as workplaces and health care facilities
Predispensed MCM: MCM stored by the intended users

While prepositioning strategies have the potential to reduce the time between an anthrax attack and when an individual receives antibiotics, this potential benefit should be weighed against increased costs of associated with prepositioning strategies, a lower degree of flexibility to change plans following an attack if needed, and possible health risks involved with home antibiotic storage. The IOM committee developed a decision-aiding framework to help state, local, and tribal health officials determine which prepositioning strategies—if any—would benefit their communities.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( Comments Off on Prepositioning Antibiotics for Anthrax – Institute of Medicine – 30 September 2011 )

Holder Makes Pitch For Public Safety Network – [US] Tech Daily Dose – 30 August 2011

Posted on September 7, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management, Health Informatics |

Holder Makes Pitch For Public Safety Network – [US] Tech Daily Dose – 30 August 2011

By Juliana Gruenwald

“Attorney General Eric Holder made another pitch Tuesday for setting aside airwaves for emergency services.

Police and fire chiefs and other public safety officials have been pushing Congress to pass a Senate Commerce bill that would reallocate a chunk of spectrum known as the D-block to public safety for their network and authorize funding to build it.”

… continues on the site

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Hospital emergency response checklist. An all-hazards tool for hospital administrators and emergency managers – WHO – 2011

Posted on August 23, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

Hospital emergency response checklist. An all-hazards tool for hospital administrators and emergency managers – WHO –  2011
“Hospitals play a critical role in providing communities with essential medical care during all types of disaster. Depending on their scope and nature, disasters can lead to a rapidly increasing service demand that can overwhelm the functional capacity and safety of hospitals and the health-care system at large. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe has developed the Hospital emergency response checklist to assist hospital administrators and emergency managers in responding effectively to the most likely disaster scenarios. This tool comprises current hospital-based emergency management principles and best practices and integrates priority action required for rapid, effective response to a critical event based on an all-hazards approach. The tool is structured according to nine key components, each with a list of  priority action to support hospital managers and emergency planners in achieving: (1) continuity of essential services; (2) well-coordinated implementation of hospital operations at every level; (3) clear and accurate internal and external communication; (4) swift adaptation to increased demands; (5) the effective use of scarce resources; and (6) a safe environment for health-care workers. References to selected supplemental tools, guidelines and other applicable resources are provided. The principles and recommendations included in this tool may be used by hospitals at any level of emergency preparedness. The checklist is intended to complement existing multisectoral hospital emergency management plans and, when possible, augment standard operating procedures during non-crisis situations.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Disaster Management and Social Media – a case study – Queensland Police Service – 2011

Posted on August 2, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management |

Disaster Management and Social Media – a case study – Queensland Police Service – 2011

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Home Health Patient Assessment Tools: Preparing for Emergency Triage – AHRQ – June 2011

Posted on June 13, 2011. Filed under: Chronic Disease Mgmt, Community Services, Disaster Management | Tags: |

Home Health Patient Assessment Tools:  Preparing for Emergency Triage – AHRQ – June 2011
AHRQ = Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [US]

“Approximately 7.6 million individuals receive care in their home from 17,000 home care providers because of acute illness, long-term care conditions, permanent disability, or terminal illness. During a mass casualty event, these community-dwelling patients could experience disruption of needed support services. Depending on the level of their needs, a disruption of care/services could lead to patient decompensation and increased reliance on acute care services, including emergency medical systems and hospital emergency departments already stretched thin by the disaster situation.

The model Community-Living Patient Assessment Tool for Disaster Planning included in this report rates the risk status of community-based patients in the event of a disaster. The goal for the tool is for home health agencies and others to be able to identify and estimate the number of individuals/patients who would be most at risk for hospitalization if their home supports and services were disrupted during an emergency. With this information, emergency planners could begin to anticipate and prepare for this additional surge demand.”

Data Sources for the At-Risk Community-Dwelling Patient Population – AHRQ – June 2011

“Many patients who live in the community and need some degree of medical assistance may be unable to manage if their resources or services are depleted during a mass casualty event (MCE). Patients who are not directly affected by an MCE but who have daily medical needs, those who cannot manage their medical needs in a shelter, and those who do not have family caregivers are likely to seek care at hospitals that will already be burdened by caring for people directly affected by the MCE. This study investigates data sources to enumerate and estimate the number of people who, though not directly affected by an MCE, might seek hospital care during an MCE. The report summarizes findings about the availability of data to quantify the at-risk community population.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

How Communities Can Use Risk Assessment Results: Making Ends Meet: A Summary of the June 3, 2010 Workshop of the Disasters Roundtable – National Academies Press – 2011

Posted on May 10, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management |

How Communities Can Use Risk Assessment Results: Making Ends Meet: A Summary of the June 3, 2010 Workshop of the Disasters Roundtable – National Academies Press – 2011

“During and after a disaster, text messages, tweets, Smartphone apps, and social networks, along with 24-hour cable news and other media, deliver relevant information to emergency responders, decision-makers, and the general public. Participants in the workshop “How Communities Can Use Risk Assessment Results: Making Ends Meet” identified ways to use these technologies to communicate the risk associated with an emergency or disaster event, identify and assess real-time conditions in impacted areas, and inform the efforts of responders. This workshop was one session in the World Bank’s conference on “Understanding Risk: Innovation in Disaster Risk Assessment.”

Workshop participants emphasized three core messages: (1) the need to integrate bottom-up communications from citizens to keep emergency responders and managers informed of changing conditions; (2) the need to prepare people for disaster and emergency situations, including expected emotional reactions, developing and practicing emergency plans, and improving communications and preparedness; and (3) the importance of virtual and personal social networks in increasing resilience and connecting the technological risk assessments with increased resilience to emergency and disaster events.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

NHS emergency planning guidance: planning for the management of burn-injured patients in the event of a major incident: interim strategic national guidance – 5 April 2011

Posted on April 14, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management, Emergency Medicine | Tags: |

NHS emergency planning guidance: planning for the management of burn-injured patients in the event of a major incident: interim strategic national guidance – 5 April 2011
Author: Department of Health

“This guidance gives best practice guidance to National Health Service (NHS) organisations in planning, preparing and responding to incidents and emergencies that give rise to burn injuries regardless of cause, source or nature. This includes chemical, biological and radiological incidents. The principles apply regardless of the number of patients being treated. The guidance covers adults and children.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach – National Academies Press [US] – 2011

Posted on April 5, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management |

National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach – National Academies Press [US] – 2011

Authors: Committee on National Earthquake Resilience Research, Implementation, and Outreach; Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics; National Research Council

ISBN-10: 0-309-18673-0
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-18673-5

“The United States will certainly be subject to damaging earthquakes in the future, and some of those earthquakes will occur in highly populated and vulnerable areas. Just as hurricane Katrina tragically demonstrated for hurricane events, coping with moderate earthquakes is not a reliable indicator of preparedness for a major earthquake in a populated area. The recent, disastrous, magnitude-9 earthquake that struck northern Japan demonstrates the threat that earthquakes pose, and the tragic impacts are especially striking because Japan is an acknowledged leader in implementing earthquake-resilient measures. Moreover, the cascading nature of impacts–the earthquake causing a tsunami, cutting electrical power supplies, and stopping the pumps needed to cool nuclear reactors–demonstrates the potential complexity of an earthquake disaster. Such compound disasters can strike any earthquake-prone populated area. National Earthquake Resilience presents a roadmap for increasing our national resilience to earthquakes.

The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) is the multi-agency program mandated by Congress to undertake activities to reduce the effects of future earthquakes in the United States. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)–the lead NEHRP agency–commissioned the National Research Council (NRC) to develop a roadmap for earthquake hazard and risk reduction in the United States that would be based on the goals and objectives for achieving national earthquake resilience described in the 2008 NEHRP Strategic Plan. This roadmap is outlined in National Earthquake Resilience.

The report interprets resilience broadly so that it incorporates engineering/science (physical), social/economic (behavioral), and institutional (governing) dimensions. Resilience is also interpreted to encompass both pre- and post-disaster actions that, in combination, will enhance the robustness and the capabilities of all earthquake-vulnerable regions of our nation to function adequately following damaging earthquakes. National Earthquake Resilience assesses the activities and costs that would be required for the nation to achieve earthquake resilience in 20 years.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Building Community Resilience to Disasters: A Way Forward to Enhance National Health Security – RAND – February 2011

Posted on February 28, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

Building Community Resilience to Disasters: A Way Forward to Enhance National Health Security – RAND – February 2011
by Anita Chandra, Joie Acosta, Stefanie Stern, Lori Uscher-Pines, Malcolm V. Williams, Douglas Yeung, Jeffrey Garnett, Lisa S. Meredith

“Community resilience, or the sustained ability of a community to withstand and recover from adversity has become a key policy issue at federal, state, and local levels, including in the National Health Security Strategy. Because resources are limited in the wake of an emergency, it is increasingly recognized that resilience is critical to a community’s ability to reduce long recovery periods after an emergency. This report provides a roadmap for federal, state, and local leaders who are developing plans to enhance community resilience for health security threats and describes options for building community resilience in key areas. Based on findings from a literature review and a series of community and regional focus groups, the authors provide a definition of community resilience in the context of national health security and a set of eight levers and five core components for building resilience. They then describe suggested activities that communities are pursuing and may want to strengthen for community resilience, and they identify challenges to implementation.”
Building Community Resilience to Disasters: A Roadmap to Guide Local Planning

Press release:  Ways for Communities to Build Resilience to Aid Disaster Recovery

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Technology Trends for First Responders – Pew Internet – 22 February 2011

Posted on February 24, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management, Health Informatics |

Technology Trends for First Responders – Pew Internet – 22 February 2011

“Senior research specialist Aaron Smith spoke about the latest Pew Internet research trends in technology adoption at the Midwest Disasters 2.0 conference in Kansas City, sponsored by the Mid-America Regional Council.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Preparedness and Response to a Rural Mass Casualty Incident: Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 2011

Posted on February 24, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management, Rural Remote Health | Tags: |

Preparedness and Response to a Rural Mass Casualty Incident: Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 2011

“Problems contacting emergency services and delayed assistance are not unusual when incidents occur in rural areas, and the consequences can be devastating, particularly with mass casualty incidents. The IOM’s Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events held a workshop to examine the current capabilities of emergency response systems and the future opportunities to improve mass casualty response in rural communities.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Emergency Communications: Broadband and the Future of 911 – Congressional Research Service – 22 December 2010

Posted on February 4, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management, Emergency Medicine, Health Informatics | Tags: , |

Emergency Communications: Broadband and the Future of 911 – Congressional Research Service – 22 December 2010
Linda K. Moore Specialist in Telecommunications Policy

“Summary
Today’s 911 system is built on an infrastructure of analog technology that does not support many of the features that most Americans expect to be part of an emergency response. Efforts to splice newer, digital technologies onto this aging infrastructure have created points of failure where a call can be dropped or misdirected, sometimes with tragic consequences. Callers to 911, however, generally assume that the newer technologies they are using to place a call are matched by the same level of technology at the 911 call centers, known as Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs). However, this is not always the case. To modernize the system to provide the quality of service that approaches the expectations of its users will require that the PSAPs, and state, local, and possibly federal emergency communications authorities invest in new technologies. As envisioned by most stakeholders, these new technologies—collectively referred to as Next Generation 911 or NG9-1-1—should incorporate Internet Protocol (IP) standards. An IP-enabled emergency communications network that supports 911 will facilitate interoperability and system resilience; improve connections between 911 call centers; provide more robust capacity; and offer flexibility in receiving and managing calls. The same network can also serve wireless broadband communications for public safety and other emergency personnel, as well as other purposes.

Recognizing the importance of providing effective 911 service, Congress has passed three major bills supporting improvements in the handling of 911 emergency calls.”  …continues on the site

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

2010 Disasters in Numbers – International Strategy for Disaster Reduction – 24 January 2011

Posted on January 28, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

2010 Disasters in Numbers – International Strategy for Disaster Reduction – 24 January 2011

Extract from the press release: 

“Geneva – Some 373 natural disasters killed over 296,800 people in 2010, affecting nearly 208 million others and costing nearly US$110 billion, according to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED).

The top two most lethal disasters — the 12 January earthquake in Haiti, which killed over 222,500 people, as well as the Russian heat wave in summer, which caused about 56,000 fatalities made 2010 the deadliest years in at least two decades.”

…continues

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Public Response to Alerts and Warnings on Mobile Devices: Summary of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps – National Academies Press – 2010

Posted on January 14, 2011. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: , |

Public Response to Alerts and Warnings on Mobile Devices: Summary of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps – National Academies Press – 2010

Committee on Public Response to Alerts and Warnings on Mobile Devices: Current Knowledge and Research Gaps; National Research Council

This book presents a summary of the Workshop on Public Response to Alerts and Warnings on Mobile Devices: Current Knowledge and Research Gaps, held April 13 and 14, 2010, in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the National Research Council’s Committee on Public Response to Alerts and Warnings on Mobile Devices: Current Knowledge and Research Needs.

The workshop was structured to gather inputs and insights from social science researchers, technologists, emergency management professionals, and other experts knowledgeable about how the public responds to alerts and warnings, focusing specifically on how the public responds to mobile alerting.

ISBN-10: 0-309-18513-0
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-18513-4

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Medical Countermeasures Dispensing: Emergency Use Authorization and the Postal Model – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 22 October 2010

Posted on October 25, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: |

Medical Countermeasures Dispensing: Emergency Use Authorization and the Postal Model – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 22 October 2010
Full text online

“Note: Workshop Summaries contain the opinion of the presenters, but do NOT reflect the conclusions of the IOM. Learn more about the differences between Workshop Summaries and Consensus Reports.

During public health emergencies such as terrorist attacks or influenza outbreaks, the public health system’s ability to save lives could depend on dispensing medical countermeasures such as antibiotics, antiviral medications, and vaccines to a large number of people in a short amount of time. For example, if aerosolized anthrax were released over a large, highly-populated area, millions of people could need prophylactic antibiotics within 48 hours to survive. This is only one of many threats, and the United States needs many different medical countermeasures to be prepared for potential chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear public health threats. However, in an emergency, the best available medical countermeasure may not already be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or it may only be approved for other uses.

The IOM’s Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events held a workshop on November 18, 2009, to discuss current threats, progress made in the public health system regarding the distribution and dispensing of countermeasures, and remaining vulnerabilities. Presentations and discussions focused on two areas in which important advances recently have been made: Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), which permits the FDA Commissioner to authorize the use of unapproved medical products or the unapproved use of approved products during an emergency, and a pilot program of the Postal Model, which uses postal carriers to deliver countermeasures. This document summarizes the workshop.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Emergency Communications: Broadband and the Future of 911 – Congressional Research Service – 25 August 2010

Posted on September 29, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

Emergency Communications: Broadband and the Future of 911 – Congressional Research Service – 25 August 2010

Linda K. Moore, Specialist in Telecommunications Policy

Extract from the summary:

“Today’s 911 system is built on an infrastructure of analog technology that does not support many of the features that most Americans expect to be part of an emergency response. Efforts to splice newer, digital technologies onto this aging infrastructure have created points of failure where a call can be dropped or misdirected, sometimes with tragic consequences. Callers to 911, however, generally assume that the newer technologies they are using to place a call are matched by the same level of technology at the 911 call centers, known as Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs). However, this is not always the case.”  … continues

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Website – Public Health Emergency [US] – ESAR-VHP – Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals

Posted on September 9, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management, Health Professions, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion |

Website – Public Health Emergency [US] – ESAR-VHP – Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals

“The Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals (ESAR-VHP) is a federal program created to support states and territories in establishing standardized volunteer registration programs for disasters and public health emergencies.

The program, administered on the state level, verifies health professionals’ identification and credentials so that they can respond more quickly when disaster strikes. By registering through ESAR-VHP, volunteers’ identities, licenses, credentials, accreditations, and hospital privileges are all verified in advance, saving valuable time in emergency situations.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

The Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasure Enterprise Review – US – 19 August 2010

Posted on August 25, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion |

The Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasure Enterprise Review: Transforming the Enterprise to Meet Long Range National Needs – U.S. Department of Health and Human Services – 19 August 2010
press release

“U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius today released an examination of the federal government’s system to produce medications, vaccines, equipment and supplies needed for a health emergency, known as medical countermeasures. The Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasure Enterprise Review: Transforming the Enterprise to Meet Long Range National Needs reviews the process and makes recommendations for a better approach.”

…continues

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Evaluating the Reliability of Emergency Response Systems for Large-Scale Incident Operations – RAND – 2010

Posted on August 23, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management, Emergency Medicine | Tags: |

Evaluating the Reliability of Emergency Response Systems for Large-Scale Incident Operations – RAND – 2010
 
By: Brian A. Jackson, Kay Sullivan Faith, Henry H. Willis    224 p.
ISBN/EAN: 9780833050052

“The ability to measure emergency preparedness — to predict the likely performance of emergency response systems in future events — is critical for policy analysis in homeland security. Yet it remains difficult to know how prepared a response system is to deal with large-scale incidents, whether it be a natural disaster, terrorist attack, or industrial or transportation accident. This research draws on the fields of systems analysis and engineering to apply the concept of system reliability to the evaluation of emergency response systems. The authors describe a method for modeling an emergency response system; identifying how individual parts of the system might fail; and assessing the likelihood of each failure and the severity of its effects on the overall response effort. The authors walk the reader through two applications of this method: a simplified example in which responders must deliver medical treatment to a certain number of people in a specified time window, and a more complex scenario involving the release of chlorine gas. The authors also describe an exploratory analysis in which they parsed a set of after-action reports describing real-world incidents, to demonstrate how this method can be used to quantitatively analyze data on past response performance. The authors conclude with a discussion of how this method of measuring emergency response system reliability could inform policy discussion of emergency preparedness, how system reliability might be improved, and the costs of doing so.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

New AHRQ Guides Offering Hospitals Advice on Emergency Evacuation, Assessment and Recovery Are Available – 2010

Posted on August 3, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

New AHRQ Guides Offering Hospitals Advice on Emergency Evacuation, Assessment and Recovery – AHRQ = US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Hospital Evacuation Decision Guide

Hospital Assessment and Recovery Guide 

“Two new guides are now available to help hospital planners and administrators make important decisions about how to protect patients and health care workers and assess the physical components of a hospital when a natural or manmade disaster, terrorist attack, or other catastrophic event threatens the soundness of a facility.  The guides examine how hospital personnel have coped under emergency situations in the past to better understand what factors should be considered when making evacuation, shelter-in-place, and reoccupation decisions.  Hospital Evacuation Decision Guide and Hospital Assessment and Recovery Guide are intended to supplement hospital emergency plans, augment guidance on determining how long a decision to evacuate may be safely deferred and provide guidance on how to organize an initial assessment of a hospital to determine when it is safe to return after an evacuation.  The reports were developed by AHRQ with funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Interoperability in a Crisis 2: Human Factors and Organisational Processes – Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) – June 2010

Posted on July 12, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

Interoperability in a Crisis 2: Human Factors and Organisational Processes – Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) – June 2010

“Responding to the threats and hazards on the UK’s National Risk Register requires a co-ordinated and well-managed response from a wide range of responder agencies. This emergency response community is extremely complex, but understanding how its component parts need to work together during major incidents is vital to ensuring the efficiency and effectiveness of that response.
Compiled by Jennifer Cole, Head of Emergency Management, RUSI

Efforts to improve interoperability have tended to focus on the compatibility of the technology and equipment used by such responders, and primarily on the development of secure, resilient and interoperable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems. However, technological solutions will not significantly improve interoperability if the human factors that drive the use of that technology are not well understood. Communication is more than just the ‘C’ of ICT.

This report sets out why a better understanding is needed of the relationship between the different responder agencies, how these differences affect the way they are able to work together, and how the barriers to interoperability that have been allowed to develop in the past can be avoided and removed. It sets out the case for creating a single responsible owner for emergency response within central government to ensure that the needs of the emergency response community can be considered holistically, and considers the factors that will determine the success or failure of such an initiative.”

Download the report here (PDF)

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Hospital Evacuation Decision Guide and Hospital Assessment and Recovery Guide – AHRQ – 24 June 2010

Posted on June 25, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

Hospital Evacuation Decision Guide  and  Hospital Assessment and Recovery Guide  –  AHRQ – 24  June 2010

New AHRQ Guides Offer Hospitals Advice on Emergency Evacuation, Assessment and Recovery

“Two new guides are now available to help hospital planners and administrators make important decisions about how to protect patients and health care workers and assess the physical components of a hospital when a natural or manmade disaster, terrorist attack, or other catastrophic event threatens the soundness of a facility. Published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the guides examine how hospital personnel have coped under emergency situations in the past to better understand what factors should be considered when making evacuation, shelter-in-place, and reoccupation decisions.”

…continues

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Enhancing Public Health Emergency Preparedness for Special Needs Populations: A Toolkit for State and Local Planning and Response – RAND Corporation – June 2010

Posted on June 16, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

Enhancing Public Health Emergency Preparedness for Special Needs Populations: A Toolkit for State and Local Planning and Response – RAND Corporation – June 2010
 
By: Jeanne S. Ringel, Anita Chandra, Malcolm Williams, Karen A. Ricci, Alexandria Felton, David M. Adamson, Margaret M. Weden, Meilinda Huang

“Experiences from recent emergencies, such as Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, have shown that current emergency preparedness plans are inadequate to address the unique issues of special needs populations. This toolkit is meant to assist state and local public health agencies improve their emergency preparedness activities.”

Full Document   (File size 5.4 MB, 22 minutes modem, 3 minutes broadband)

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Crisis Standards of Care – Summary of a Workshop Series – Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events – May 2010

Posted on May 18, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management, Emergency Medicine, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: , , , |

Crisis Standards of Care – Summary of a Workshop Series – Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events – May 2010

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2010. Crisis standards of care: Summary of a workshop series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.  (pdf full text)

“In recent years, a number of federal, state, and local efforts have taken place to develop crisis standards of care protocols and policies for use in conditions of overwhelming resource scarcity. Those involved in these efforts have begun to carefully consider these difficult issues and to develop plans that are ethical, consistent with the community’s values, and implementable during a crisis. These planning efforts are essential because, absent careful planning, there is enormous potential for confusion, chaos, and flawed decision making in a catastrophic public health emergency or disaster.

However, although these efforts have accomplished a tremendous amount in just a few years, a great deal remains to be done in even the most advanced plan. Furthermore, the efforts have mainly been taking place independently, leading to a lack of consistency across neighboring jurisdictions and unnecessary duplication of effort. Lastly, many states have not yet substantially begun to develop policies and protocols for crisis standards of care during a mass casualty event.

These issues prompted the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events (Preparedness Forum) to organize a series of regional workshops on this topic. These workshops were held in Irvine, CA; Orlando, FL; New York, NY; and Chicago, IL, between March and May of 2009.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Regionalizing Emergency Care. Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – released 22 March 2010

Posted on March 23, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management, Emergency Medicine | Tags: , |

Regionalizing Emergency Care. Workshop Summary
Released: March 22, 2010
Full text of the workshop summary

“Note: Workshop Summaries contain the opinion of the presenters, but do NOT reflect the conclusions of the IOM. Learn more about the differences between Workshop Summaries and Consensus Reports.

During medical emergencies, hospital staff and emergency medical services (EMS) providers, can face barriers in delivering the fastest and best possible care. Overcrowded emergency rooms cannot care for patients as quickly as necessary, and some may divert ambulances and turn away new patients outright. In many states, ambulance staff lacks the means to determine which hospitals can provide the best care to a patient. Given this absence of knowledge, they bring patients to the closest hospital. In addition, because emergency service providers from different companies compete with each other for patients, and emergency care legislation varies from state to state, it is difficult to establish the necessary local, interstate, and national communication and collaboration to create a more efficient system.

In 2006, the IOM recommended that the federal government implement a regionalized emergency care system to improve cooperation and overcome these challenges. In a regionalized system, local hospitals and EMS providers would coordinate their efforts so that patients would be brought to hospitals based on the hospitals’ capacity and expertise to best meet patients’ needs. In September 2009, three years after making these recommendations, the IOM held a workshop sponsored by the federal Emergency Care Coordination Center to assess the nation’s progress toward regionalizing emergency care. The workshop brought together policymakers and stakeholders, including nurses, EMS personnel, hospital administrators, and others involved in emergency care. Participants identified successes and shortcomings in previous regionalization efforts; examined the many factors involved in successfully implementing regionalization; and discussed future challenges to regionalizing emergency care. This document summarizes the workshop.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Medical Surge Capacity. Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine of the National Academies [US] – released 27 January 2010

Posted on January 28, 2010. Filed under: Disaster Management, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: |

Medical Surge Capacity. Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine of the National Academies [US] – released 27 January 2010
Type: Workshop Summary
Topic(s): Biomedical and Health Research, Public Health
Activity: Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events
Board(s): Board on Health Sciences Policy

“Note: Workshop Summaries contain the opinion of the presenters, but do NOT reflect the conclusions of the IOM. Learn more about the differences between Workshop Summaries and Consensus Reports.

During natural disasters, disease pandemics, terrorist attacks, and other public health emergencies, the health system must be prepared to accommodate a surge in the number of individuals seeking medical help. For the health community, a primary concern is how to provide care to individuals during such high demand, when the health system’s resources are exhausted and there are more patients than the system can accommodate.

The IOM’s Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events held a workshop June 10-11, 2009, to assess the capability of and tools available to federal, state, and local governments to respond to a medical surge. In addition, participants discussed strategies for the public and private sectors to improve preparedness for such a surge. The workshop brought together leaders in the medical and public health preparedness fields, including policy makers from federal agencies and state and local public health departments; providers from the health care community; and health care and hospital administrators. This document summarizes the workshop.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

New Tools Help Emergency Planners Select Alternate Care Facilities and Transfer Patients During Disasters – AHRQ

Posted on October 27, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: , |

New Tools Help Emergency Planners Select Alternate Care Facilities and Transfer Patients During Disasters
 
AHRQ = US Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality
Info copied from AHRQ’s Electronic Newsletter #284.
 
“AHRQ released two interactive computer tools to help emergency planners and responders select and run alternate care facilities during disaster situations.  In such instances, hospitals experiencing a surge in seriously ill patients requiring acute care may need to transfer less ill patients efficiently to alternate care sites.  Alternate care facilities are locations that can easily and quickly be equipped to augment or replace health care services when hospitals and other traditional care sites are inoperable or overwhelmed.  Potential alternate care sites include college campuses, gymnasiums, schools, community centers, health clubs, convention centers or climate-controlled warehouses.  The two tools allow users to input information on their specific medical care needs and receive feedback on which facilities can become alternate care sites or which patients can appropriately be moved to those sites.  The Disaster Alternate Care Facilities Selection Tool is an interactive worksheet that assists users in selecting sites and identifying what they need to prepare these sites for use. It evaluates the characteristics of several potential facilities and calculates the results into weighted scores, which planners can use to select appropriate sites for care and plan for operations during a disaster.  The Disaster Alternate Care Facility Patient Selection Tool is a decision support tool that matches a hospitalized patient’s clinical needs with the capabilities of an alternate care facility. This information may help clinicians determine which patients might be eligible for discharge or transfer to an alternate care facility to increase a hospital’s capacity for incoming patients.  Select to read our press release and select to access the tools.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Measuring Crisis Decision Making for Public Health Emergencies – RAND – August 2009

Posted on August 28, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: |

Measuring Crisis Decision Making for Public Health Emergencies
By: Andrew M. Parker, Christopher Nelson, Shoshana R. Shelton, David J. Dausey, Matthew W. Lewis, Amanda Pomeroy, Kristin J. Leuschner
RAND Corporation August 2009  Pages: 74   Document Number: TR-712-DHHS

“Public health emergencies often involve making difficult decisions, including when to notify the public of threats, when to close schools or suspend public events, when to dispense medication, and how to allocate scarce resources. Yet, public health practitioners often have little experience or training in crisis decision making and can be uncomfortable with the need to make decisions based on often-incomplete information and short time lines. Unfortunately, there are no established tools for identifying, measuring, and improving public health crisis decision making.

This technical report describes the development and first generation of a tool to measure key aspects of crisis decision making in public health emergencies, based on performance in exercises (e.g., tabletops, functional exercises, full-scale exercises) and real incidents (e.g., outbreaks of waterborne disease). ”

…continues on the website

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Emergency Vehicle Visibility and Conspicuity Study – U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) – August 2009

Posted on August 24, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management, Emergency Medicine | Tags: , , |

Emergency Vehicle Visibility and Conspicuity Study – U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) – August 2009

From the Executive Summary

“Over the past decade, numerous law enforcement officers, firefighters, and emergency medical services (EMS) workers were injured or killed along roadways throughout the United States. In 2008, as with the prior 10 years, more law enforcement officers died in traffic-related incidents than from any other cause; National Law  Enforcement Officers Memorial (NLEOM, 2008) over the past 12 years, an average of one officer per month was struck and killed by a vehicle in the United States. (FBI, 2007) Preliminary firefighter fatality statistics for 2008 reflect 29 of 114 firefighters killed on duty perished in motor vehicle crashes, (USFA, 2009a) similar to figures posted in previous years. According to a 2002 study (Maguire, et al.) that aggregated data from several independent sources, at least 67 EMS providers were killed in ground transportation-related events over the 6 years from 1992 to 1997.

These sobering facts clearly demonstrate the importance of addressing vehicle characteristics and human factors for reducing the morbidity and mortality of public safety personnel operating along the Nation’s highways and byways. Studies conducted in the United States and elsewhere suggest that increasing emergency vehicle visibility and conspicuity holds promise for enhancing first responders’ safety when exposed to traffic both inside and outside their response vehicles (e.g., patrol cars, motorcycles, fire apparatus, and ambulances).

This report, produced in partnership between the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) and the International Fire Service Training Association (IFSTA), with support from the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), analyzes emergency vehicle visibility and conspicuity with an eye toward expanding efforts in these areas to improve vehicle and roadway operations safety for all emergency responders. Emphasis in this report is placed on passive visibility/conspicuity treatments; additional studies are underway on active technologies such as emergency vehicle warning lighting systems. (USFA, 2009b).”

…continues on the website

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

A National Agenda for Public Health Systems Research on Emergency Preparedness – RAND Corporation – August 2009

Posted on August 17, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management, Health Mgmt Policy Planning, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion, Research | Tags: , |

A National Agenda for Public Health Systems Research on Emergency Preparedness – RAND Corporation – August
By: Joie Acosta, Christopher Nelson, Ellen Burke Beckjord, Shoshana R. Shelton, Erin Murphy, Kristin J. Leuschner, Jeffrey Wasserman    126 p.    Document Number: TR-660-DHHS    2009

“Improving public health emergency preparedness is at the top of the national agenda, but the lack of frequent opportunities to observe and learn from real-world responses to large-scale public health emergencies has hindered the development of an adequate evidence base. As a result, efforts to develop performance measures and standards, best practices, program guidance, training, and other tools have proceeded without a strong empirical and analytical basis. The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response asked RAND to facilitate the development of a public health systems research agenda for emergency preparedness, identify short- and long-term research priorities, and provide a basis for coordinating funders and researchers inside and outside the federal government. In response, RAND convened a panel of 13 experts representing a diverse range of perspectives. The panelists identified 20 research priorities and illustrative research questions in areas related to planning, response, resources and infrastructure, and accountability and improvement. Preparations for the panel discussion included an extensive literature review of peer-reviewed sources and statutes, policies, and other government and organizational reports.”

Full Document
(File size 1.8 MB, 7 minutes modem, < 1 minute broadband)
Download PDF Summary Only
(File size 0.1 MB, < 1 minute modem, < 1 minute broadband)

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Public Health Preparedness and Response to Chemical and Radiological Incidents: Functions, Practices, and Areas for Future Work – RAND – 2009

Posted on August 6, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management, Environmental Health, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: |

Public Health Preparedness and Response to Chemical and Radiological Incidents: Functions, Practices, and Areas for Future Work
By: Tom LaTourrette, Lynn E. Davis, David R. Howell, Preethi R. Sama, David J. Dausey
RAND Corporation 2009    66 p.  Document Number: TR-719-DHHS

“One area of public health emergency preparedness that has not been examined in depth is preparedness for incidents involving the release of chemical or radiological substances. Past experience — with chemical and nuclear plant accidents, train collisions, product tampering, and chemical terrorism — shows that such incidents can have serious public health consequences. This report focuses on the roles of the public health service in emergency preparedness and its response to chemical and radiological incidents. The authors develop a functional framework for public health roles in such incidents by aligning the capabilities and roles of the public health service with the emergency preparedness and response activities that would be required for those incidents. They use this framework to examine representative state and local public health department practices and to identify areas where further practice development may be warranted.”

Download PDF Full Document
(File size 2.2 MB, 9 minutes modem, < 1 minute broadband)

Download PDF Summary Only
(File size 0.2 MB, < 1 minute modem, < 1 minute broadband)

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Planning for the psychosocial and mental health care of people affected by major incidents and disasters: Interim national strategic guidance – UK – 31 July 2009

Posted on August 1, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management, Mental Health Psychi Psychol | Tags: , |

Planning for the psychosocial and mental health care of people affected by major incidents and disasters: Interim national strategic guidance

Last modified date:     31 July 2009

“This interim strategic guidance provides best practice in planning, preparing and managing psychosocial and mental health services in response to traumatic events and all types of emergencies resulting in an abnormal situation that poses any threat to the health of the community or in providing services for psychosocial care following such events.”

Download Guidance on Psychosocial Care For the NHS (PDF, 2242K)

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience: Workshop Summary – National Academies Press, 2009

Posted on July 23, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: , , , |

Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience: Workshop Summary – National Academies Press, 2009

“Social Network Analysis (SNA) is the identification of the relationships and attributes of members, key actors, and groups that social networks comprise. The National Research Council, at the request of the Department of Homeland Security, held a two-day workshop on the use of SNA for the purpose of building community disaster resilience. The workshop, summarized in this volume, was designed to provide guidance to the DHS on a potential research agenda that would increase the effectiveness of SNA for improving community disaster resilience.

The workshop explored the state of the art in SNA and its applications in the identification, construction, and strengthening of networks within U.S. communities. Workshop participants discussed current work in SNA focused on characterizing networks; the theories, principles and research applicable to the design or strengthening of networks; the gaps in knowledge that prevent the application of SNA to the construction of networks; and research areas that could fill those gaps. Elements of a research agenda to support the design, development, and implementation of social networks for the specific purpose of strengthening community resilience against natural and human-made disasters were discussed.”

ISBN-10: 0-309-14094-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-14094-2

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

MedlinePlus® Go Local Sites Can Quickly Create and Post Emergency Response Pages – 28 May 2009

Posted on May 29, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management, Health Informatics, Influenza A(H1N1) / Swine Flu | Tags: |

May 28, 2009
MedlinePlus® Go Local Sites Can Quickly Create and Post Emergency Response Pages

“As of May 13, 2009, Go Local areas using the NLM® -hosted input system can quickly create and display a page with emergency response information. Staff at each Go Local site decide if and when to use the Emergency Response Page. They can tailor the content of the page as appropriate to the situation, and can link to the general services for disaster preparation and recovery listing that is already available on the site. Go Local sites may prepare Emergency Response Pages in advance for situations common to an area, such as hurricanes in Texas.

When activated, a link to the Emergency Response Page appears in an alert banner on the site’s header (see Figure 1). Go Local project staff can display the banner on all pages on the site, or only on the homepage.”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Initial Evaluation of the Cities Readiness Initiative – March 2009

Posted on April 29, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management, Infectious Diseases, Influenza A(H1N1) / Swine Flu, Pharmacy | Tags: |

Initial Evaluation of the Cities Readiness Initiative

By: Henry H. Willis, Christopher Nelson, Shoshana R. Shelton, Andrew M. Parker, John A. Zambrano, Edward W. Chan, Jeffrey Wasserman, Brian A. Jackson

RAND Corporation  March 2009

The Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) was created in 2004 to help the nation’s largest metropolitan areas develop the ability to provide life-saving medications in the event of a large-scale biological terrorist attack or naturally occurring disease outbreak. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention asked RAND to provide an initial evaluation of the impact of the Cities Readiness Initiative on awardees’ readiness and capability to conduct mass countermeasure dispensing above and beyond what would be the case without the program. The subsequent study drew on available empirical evidence, including data from the Technical Assistance Review, a CDC-administered assessment of jurisdictions’ capabilities in 12 core functional areas associated with countermeasure distribution and dispensing, as well as qualitative data collected through discussions with personnel involved with countermeasure dispensing in nine metropolitan areas (both CRI awardees and non-CRI jurisdictions). The evaluation showed that, overall, CRI awardees had benefited from the program’s preparedness guidance and scenario focus and that the program had strengthened or encouraged the development of partnerships with other stakeholders. The program also encouraged a variety of changes to awardees’ training plans and had spillover effects on non-CRI sites. However, this evaluation did not address questions of how the documented benefits compare to the program costs.

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

AHRQ Issues Recommendations for Safeguarding Children During Public Health Emergencies

Posted on April 17, 2009. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Disaster Management | Tags: |

AHRQ (US Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality) released two new tools designed to protect and care for children who are in a hospital or a school during a public health emergency.

The first tool, Pediatric Hospital Surge Capacity in Public Health Emergencies, consists of guidelines to assist pediatric hospitals in converting from standard operating capacity to surge capacity and help community hospital emergency departments provide care for large numbers of critically ill children.

The second tool, School-Based Emergency Preparedness: A National Analysis and Recommended Protocol, is a national model for school-based emergency response planning.

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Recommendations for a National Mass Patient and Evacuee Movement, Regulating, and Tracking System March 2009

Posted on April 16, 2009. Filed under: Disaster Management | Tags: |

AHRQ = US Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality

AHRQ released a new report today, Recommendations for a National Mass Patient and Evacuee Movement, Regulating, and Tracking System, which recommends developing a coordinated multi-jurisdictional evacuation system that builds on existing resources and procedures available at the State, local, and Federal level.  To develop a national system to locate, track, and regulate patients and evacuees leaving disaster areas, the report recommends collecting eight essential data elements to identify each patient or evacuee, their health status, and location from existing data sources like hospitals.  It also recommends collecting baseline inventory levels of key resources such as available hospital beds and ambulances or other medical transportation.  The report was de veloped by AHRQ with funding from HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response and with critical input and leadership from the Department of Defense.

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Liked it here?
Why not try sites on the blogroll...