Child Health / Paediatrics

NHS England concludes review of children heart surgery at Leeds Hospitals – NHS England – 28 October 2014

Posted on October 29, 2014. Filed under: Cardiol / Cardiothor Surg, Child Health / Paediatrics, Patient Safety, Surgery | Tags: |

NHS England concludes review of children heart surgery at Leeds Hospitals – NHS England – 28 October 2014

“The review into children’s heart surgery at Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust concluded today (28 October) with the publication of the final two reports, undertaken by an independent investigation agency Verita.

NHS England’s deputy medical director, Dr Mike Bewick, paid tribute to all those who have contributed to the process, which was begun following the voluntary, temporary suspension of surgery at Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust in March 2013.”

… continues

Independent review into concerns about paediatric cardiac surgery (the 14 cases) at Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust – Verita – October 2014

Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust: Overarching report about paediatric cardiac surgery – Verita – October 2014

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Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) Tier 4 Report – NHS England – 10 July 2014

Posted on July 14, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol |

Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) Tier 4 Report – NHS England – 10 July 2014

NHS England takes action to improve access to specialised mental health services for children and young people – 10 July 2014

“NHS England is taking urgent action to improve access to specialised inpatient mental health services for children and young people after publishing a “frank and honest” report on current provision.

For England as a whole, the report says “it is impossible to conclude definitively whether the current level of bed provision is sufficient to meet the need.”

The report found that the number of NHS-funded child and adolescent mental health services (CAHMS) tier four beds increased from 844 in 1999 to 1128 in 2006, rising further to 1264 in January 2014.

But NHS England also found relative shortages in the South West and areas such as Yorkshire and Humber, resulting in patients being admitted to services a long way from home.”

… continues on the site

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Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. The National Children’s Study 2014: An Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014

Posted on June 17, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: , |

Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. The National Children’s Study 2014: An Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014

“Description

The National Children s Study (NCS) was authorized by the Children s Health Act of 2000 and is being implemented by a dedicated Program Office in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The NCS is planned to be a longitudinal observational birth cohort study to evaluate the effects of chronic and intermittent exposures on child health and development in the U.S.. The NCS would be the first study to collect a broad range of environmental exposure measures for a national probability sample of about 100,000 children, followed from birth or before birth to age 21.

Detailed plans for the NCS were developed by 2007 and reviewed by a National Research Council / Institute of Medicine panel. At that time, sample recruitment for the NCS Main Study was scheduled to begin in 2009 and to be completed within about 5 years. However, results from the initial seven pilot locations, which recruited sample cases in 2009-2010, indicated that the proposed household-based recruitment approach would be more costly and time consuming than planned. In response, the Program Office implemented a number of pilot tests in 2011 to evaluate alternative recruitment methods and pilot testing continues to date.

At the request of Congress, The National Children s Study 2014 reviews the revised study design and proposed methodologies for the NCS Main Study. This report assesses the study s plan to determine whether it is likely to produce scientifically sound results that are generalizable to the United States population and appropriate subpopulations. The report makes recommendations about the overall study framework, sample design, timing, content and need for scientific expertise and oversight.

The National Children s Study has the potential to add immeasurably to scientific knowledge about the impact of environmental exposures, broadly defined, on children s health and development in the United States. The recommendations of this report will help the NCS will achieve its intended objective to examine the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of American children.”

 

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From the pond into the sea: children’s transition to adult health services – Care Quality Commission [UK] – June 2014

Posted on June 10, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

From the pond into the sea: children’s transition to adult health services – Care Quality Commission [UK] – June 2014

Summary report – From the pond into the sea: children’s transition to adult health services – Care Quality Commission [UK] – June 2014

News release: Teenagers with complex health needs lack support as they approach adulthood – 8 June 2014

“The findings from our recent review show that young people with complex health needs do not always receive the necessary care and support when they move on to adult care services.

The transition process can be a vulnerable time for young people and their families. During this period, they stop receiving health services that they may have had since a young age (such as care to support mobility, breathing, swallowing or pain) and move on to equivalent adult services which can be structured and funded differently.”

… continues on the site

 

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Transition Planning Guidelines for Infant, Child and Adolescent Mental Health / Alcohol and Other Drugs Services 2014 – NZ Ministry of Health – 29 May 2014

Posted on May 30, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol |

Transition Planning Guidelines for Infant, Child and Adolescent Mental Health / Alcohol and Other Drugs Services 2014 – NZ Ministry of Health – 29 May 2014

“This guideline is for district health boards (DHBs) funded infant, child and adolescent mental health (ICAMH), and youth-focused alcohol and other drug (AOD) services. It assists them to develop and implement planning processes for young people who are transitioning from their services.

It has been developed to promote consistent practice across ICAMH/AOD services nationally and to guide services to support young people to transition between services and in-and-out of services based upon their level of need at that time.

To date there has been little research into the benefits of specific models of transition planning. However it is widely acknowledged that processes that enable smooth transitions between services and smooth exits from services are important in supporting recovery and achieving good outcomes for young people accessing these services. Adequate planning is critical in these transitions. Such planning is commonly called ‘discharge planning’ or ‘transition planning’. In these guidelines, we have used the term transition planning because it reflects the intention to ensure a smooth passage into, between, and out of services.”

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Is sport enough? 2014 report card on physical activity for children and young people – Active Healthy Kids Australia – 20 May 2014

Posted on May 21, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Is sport enough? 2014 report card on physical activity for children and young people – Active Healthy Kids Australia – 20 May 2014

“The Active Healthy Kids Australia Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Young people is based upon the best available evidence from both national and state-based surveys. Experts from across the nation, who formed the Research Working Group, evaluated all of the evidence before assigning grades to each of the indicators within the Report Card.”

… continues on the site

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Indicators for the Well Child / Tamariki Ora Quality Improvement Framework – NZ Ministry of Health – published online 19 May 2014

Posted on May 19, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics |

Indicators for the Well Child / Tamariki Ora Quality Improvement Framework – NZ Ministry of Health – published online 19 May 2014

ISBN: 978-0-478-42802-5 (online)

“Summary

The Ministry of Health, in partnership with sector expert advisors, developed the Well Child/Tamariki Ora (WCTO) Quality Improvement Framework, drawing on New Zealand and international research.

The Framework has three high-level aims, focusing on family/whānau experience, population health and best value for the health system resource and sets quality indicators to audit health system performance.

This is the second publication of the WCTO Quality Indicators which show areas of excellence and areas for improvement. The WCTO Quality Indicators support the Ministry, DHBs and providers of WCTO and related child health services to identify and prioritise areas for national and local quality improvement.”

 

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Income and Children’s Outcomes in Canada – Canadian Research Data Centre Network – April 2014

Posted on April 29, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: , , |

Income and Children’s Outcomes in Canada – Canadian Research Data Centre Network – April 2014

“What can we really expect from government transfers, such as child benefits, that increase household income? Do they really improve children’s outcomes? Annie McEwen et Jennifer Stewart review the evidence in the most recent CRDCN synthesis”

 

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New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research – Institute of Medicine; National Research Council – 25 March 2014

Posted on April 28, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: , , |

New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research – Institute of Medicine; National Research Council – 25 March 2014

Edited by Anne C. Petersen, Joshua Joseph, and Monica Feit. Committee on Child Maltreatment Research, Policy, and Practice for the Next Decade: Phase II; Board on Children, Youth, and Families; Committee on Law and Justice; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2014 Mar 25.
ISBN-13: 978-0-309-28512-4ISBN-10: 0-309-28512-7

“Each year, child protective services receive reports of child abuse and neglect involving six million children, and many more go unreported. The long-term human and fiscal consequences of child abuse and neglect are not relegated to the victims themselves — they also impact their families, future relationships, and society. In 1993, the National Research Council (NRC) issued the report, Under-standing Child Abuse and Neglect, which provided an overview of the research on child abuse and neglect. New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research updates the 1993 report and provides new recommendations to respond to this public health challenge. According to this report, while there has been great progress in child abuse and neglect research, a coordinated, national research infrastructure with high-level federal support needs to be established and implemented immediately.

New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research recommends an actionable framework to guide and support future child abuse and neglect research. This report calls for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to child abuse and neglect research that examines factors related to both children and adults across physical, mental, and behavioral health domains–including those in child welfare, economic support, criminal justice, education, and health care systems–and assesses the needs of a variety of subpopulations. It should also clarify the causal pathways related to child abuse and neglect and, more importantly, assess efforts to interrupt these pathways. New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research identifies four areas to look to in developing a coordinated research enterprise: a national strategic plan, a national surveillance system, a new generation of researchers, and changes in the federal and state programmatic and policy response.”

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Fly-in fly-out workforce practices in Australia: The effects on children and family relationships – Australian Institute of Family Studies – February 2014

Posted on February 26, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Social Work | Tags: , |

Fly-in fly-out workforce practices in Australia: The effects on children and family relationships – Australian Institute of Family Studies – February 2014

ISSN 2200-4106 ISBN 978-1-922038-41-8

“A limited but growing amount of Australian research into fly-in fly-out (FIFO) work practices tentatively suggests that a FIFO lifestyle can have positive, negative or few effects on children and on family relationships, depending on the circumstances. Effects vary according to a range of contextual factors, such as workplace cultures, rosters and recruitment practices, as well as community and home environments, and individual characteristics. As a result, there is a high level of complexity involved in understanding the FIFO lifestyle and how it may impact on outcomes for children and family relationships. Substantial limitations in regards to the available evidence highlight the need for further research rather than providing any robust conclusions.”

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Getting a grip on safer medicine for children – European Commission – 10 January 2014

Posted on January 31, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Pharmacy |

Getting a grip on safer medicine for children – European Commission – 10 January 2014

“Many drugs prescribed for children have not been appropriately tested for use on this age group. Such drugs frequently lack adequate information about the correct dosage and how best to administer them.

These longstanding problems with potential health risks have triggered an international response in the form of the European Union (EU)-funded GRiP (Global Research in Paediatrics) project.

Since 2011 the GRiP network of specialists in the medical care of children (paediatrics) has been working to improve the development and safe use of medicines for children. With involvement from research institutes and organisations from across Asia, Europe and the United States, as well as partnerships with major international networks, the project involves input from more than 1,000 researchers.

To pool this information, an ‘infrastructure matrix’ on the safe use of medicine in children has been developed. This ‘matrix’ is linking existing healthcare databases in Europe and the US to assess the occurrence of diseases in children and the effects of drugs used (including vaccines).

“We have developed an international platform for paediatric drug formulation. This enables us to share knowledge and educate professionals on drug development and support clinical trials worldwide,” explains Carlo Giaquinto, coordinator of the GRiP network. “Our ultimate goal is to better use the available knowledge and the existing research capacity. We focus particularly on the needs of newborn babies,” he adds.

Research needs to be stepped up in this area and the GRiP project is developing an internationally recognised training programme to increase the number of trained paediatric clinical pharmacologists, researchers and formulation scientists.

The team is also exploring new procedures and methodologies for clinical trials in children in order to fill the important gaps that currently exist in paediatric medicine.

“The infrastructure matrix and training programme being developed by the GRiP team are essential tools for improving the safe use of medicines for children. The project brings together an exceptional range of high quality scientists and organisations that are active in the EU and US paediatric medicines research,” says Carlo Giaquinto.

The work of the GRiP team is expected to support the paediatric legislation being introduced in the EU and the US which obliges companies to test the impact of new drugs on children.”

GRIP

“Global Research in Paediatrics (GRiP) is a network of scientists which aims to stimulate and facilitate the development and safe use of medicines in children. GRiP aims to become the leading research network in the field of paediatric clinical pharmacology.”

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Identifying and Addressing the Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 10 January 2014

Posted on January 30, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Oncology | Tags: , |

Identifying and Addressing the Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 10 January 2014

National Cancer Policy Forum; Board on Health Care Services; A Livestrong and Institute of Medicine Workshop; Institute of Medicine.

“Identifying and Addressing the Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine’s National Cancer Policy Forum in July 2013 to facilitate discussion about gaps and challenges in caring for adolescent and young adult cancer patients and potential strategies and actions to improve the quality of their care. The workshop featured invited presentations from clinicians and other advocates working to improve the care and outcomes for the adolescent and young adult population with cancer.

Cancer is the leading disease-related cause of death in adolescents and young adults. Each year nearly 70,000 people between the ages of 15 and 39 are diagnosed with cancer, approximately 8 times more than children under age 15. This population faces a variety of unique short- and long-term health and psychosocial issues, such as difficulty reentering school, the workforce, or the dating scene; problems with infertility; cardiac, pulmonary, or other treatment repercussions; and secondary malignancies. Survivors are also at increased risk for psychiatric conditions such as anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and suicide and may have difficulty acquiring health insurance and paying for needed care. Identifying and Addressing the Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer discusses a variety of topics important to adolescent and young adult patients with cancer, including the ways in which cancers affecting this group differ from cancers in other age groups and what that implies about the best treatments for these cancer patients. This report identifies gaps and challenges in providing optimal care to adolescent and young adult patients with cancer and to discuss potential strategies and actions to address them.”

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Health Working Group Report on Child Sexual Exploitation [UK] – January 2014

Posted on January 16, 2014. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: , |

Health Working Group Report on Child Sexual Exploitation [UK] – January 2014

“An independent group chaired by the Department of Health focusing on:  Improving the outcomes for children by promoting effective engagement of health services and staff”

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Acting Early, Changing Lives: How prevention and early action saves money and improves wellbeing – Benevolent Society – October 2013

Posted on October 10, 2013. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Economics | Tags: , |

Acting Early, Changing Lives: How prevention and early action saves money and improves wellbeing – Benevolent Society – October 2013

Written for The Benevolent Society by The Centre for Community Child Health at the Murdoch Children’s Research
Institute and The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne.
ISBN: 978-0-9922982-5-8

Extract from the executive summary:

“Evidence indicates worsening or unacceptably high levels of problems amongst Australia’s children and young people. These problems will not improve – and could get worse – unless we are able to effectively intervene to prevent these problems from occurring in the first place or address the problems early before they become entrenched.

This report investigates the potential of early intervention to improve the outcomes of Australian children, especially those children experiencing significant levels of disadvantage, and especially for the long-term (i.e. into adolescence and adulthood).

Early intervention is defined in this report as interventions that occur during the early years of an individual’s life (0-5 years of age) in order to prevent a negative outcome or to address an existing problem.

The justification for early intervention (i.e. intervention during the early years) rests with the nature of human
development and the way in which children develop and learn. The basic foundations for development are laid
down during the early childhood years. The prenatal period also plays an important role in an individual’s longterm outcomes.”

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A background report on nurse staffing in children’s and young people’s health care – Royal College of Nursing – 20 June 2013

Posted on July 11, 2013. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Nursing, Workforce | Tags: |

A background report on nurse staffing in children’s and young people’s health care – Royal College of Nursing – 20 June 2013

“This background report was commissioned by the RCN to contribute to the updating of the RCN publication: Defining staffing levels for children and young people’s services: RCN guidance for clinical professionals and service managers, first published in 2003 and updated in 2012/2013 (publication code 002 172). The report provides a review of available literature relating to staffing child health services from across the UK and evidence from discussion with senior children’s nurses working across a range of general and specialist services in England. Analysis of this evidence has highlighted gaps in the literature and led to a number of recommendations to be included in future guidance.”

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Defining staffing levels for children’s and young people’s services – Royal College of Nursing – 24 June 2013

Posted on July 11, 2013. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Nursing, Workforce | Tags: |

Defining staffing levels for children’s and young people’s services – Royal College of Nursing – 24 June 2013

“The standards contained in this document apply to all areas in which babies, children and young people receive care, as well as across all types of services and provision commissioned by the NHS including the acute and community, as well as third sector and independent sector providers. The standards are the minimum essential requirements for all providers of services for babies, children and young people.”

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Marketing of foods high in fat, salt and sugar to children: update 2012–2013 – WHO Regional Office for Europe – 18 June 2013

Posted on June 19, 2013. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Dietetics, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: , |

Marketing of foods high in fat, salt and sugar to children: update 2012–2013 – WHO Regional Office for Europe – 18 June 2013

Media release: Lax marketing regulations contribute to obesity crisis in children

“WHO calls for tighter controls on the marketing to children of foods high in saturated and trans fats, free sugars and salt, in order to fight childhood obesity. Tightening restrictions on marketing is central to this fight, according to a new report from WHO/Europe: “Marketing of foods high in fat, salt and sugar to children”.”

… continues

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Safe Practice Guidelines for Youth Mentoring – NZ Ministry of Health – 16 May 2013

Posted on May 17, 2013. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Safe Practice Guidelines for Youth Mentoring – NZ Ministry of Health – 16 May 2013

“The NZ Youth Mentoring Network has worked with the Ministry to produce safe practice guidelines for mentoring providers. These will support providers to review and develop their programmes, and help them work towards better systems, practices, procedures and protocols.

The guidelines include advice to assist programme providers to:

identify safety-related aspects of their programme that require further development
ensure adequate support is in place for both young people and volunteer mentors
ensure that the right measures are in place to build successful mentoring relationships.

Funders of youth mentoring programmes are also encouraged to use these guidelines to determine the suitability of youth mentoring programmes for sponsorship and other financial assistance.

These guidelines were produced as part of the Children’s Action Plan initiatives for mentoring and supporting vulnerable children.”

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Mental Health Surveillance Among Children in the United States – 2005-2011 – CDC – 16 May 2013

Posted on May 17, 2013. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol | Tags: , |

Mental Health Surveillance Among Children in the United States – 2005-2011 – CDC – 16 May 2013

CDC issues first comprehensive report on children’s mental health in the United States

Report is an important step to better understand childhood mental disorders and help children reach their full potential in life

Children’s mental disorders affect boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions of the United States.  Previous studies estimate up to 1 in 5 children have mental disorder and a new CDC MMWR Supplement finds that millions of American children live with depression, anxiety, ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome or a host of other mental health issues. The MMWR Supplement titled, “Mental Health Surveillance Among Children in the United States, 2005-2011,” is the first-ever report to describe federal efforts on monitoring mental disorders, and presents estimates of the number of children aged 3-17 years with specific mental disorders, compiling information from different data sources covering the period of 2005-2011.”

… continues

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Child well-being in rich countries – UNICEF – 10 April 2013

Posted on April 12, 2013. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Child well-being in rich countries – UNICEF – 10 April 2013

“Report Card 11: Child well-being in rich countries, from UNICEF’s Office of Research, examines the state of children across the ‘rich’ world. As debates continue to generate strongly opposed views on the pros and cons of austerity measures and social spending cuts, Report Card 11 charts the achievements of 29 of the world’s advanced economies in ensuring the well-being of their children during the first decade of this century.

This international comparison, says the report, proves that child poverty in these countries is not inevitable, but policy susceptible – and that some countries are doing much better than others at protecting their most vulnerable children.”

 

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What about the children? Joint working between adult and children’s services when parents or carers have mental ill health and/or drug and alcohol problems – Ofsted – 25 March 2013

Posted on March 26, 2013. Filed under: Alcohol & Drug Dep., Child Health / Paediatrics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol | Tags: |

What about the children? Joint working between adult and children’s services when parents or carers have mental ill health and/or drug and alcohol problems – Ofsted – 25 March 2013

Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills [UK]

“This thematic inspection by Ofsted and the Care Quality Commission explored how well adult mental health services and drug and alcohol services considered the impact on children when their parents or carers had mental ill health and/or drug and alcohol problems; and how effectively adult and children’s services worked together to ensure that children affected by their parents’ or carers’ difficulties were supported and safe. The report draws on evidence from cases in nine local authorities and partner agencies and from the views of parents, carers, children, practitioners and managers. Please note that where references are made to ‘children’ in general terms in this report, this refers to children and young people up to the age of 18 years.”

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Starting to Smoke: Experiences of Indigenous Youth – Lowitja Institute – 2013

Posted on March 18, 2013. Filed under: Aboriginal TI Health, Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: , |

Starting to Smoke: Experiences of Indigenous Youth – Lowitja Institute – 2013

Vanessa Johnston, David Thomas, Darren Westphal & Cyan Earnshaw

“This report sets out the background, research design, findings and conclusions of the ‘Starting to Smoke’ project. The aim of the project was to explore the determinants of smoking among Indigenous young people with a particular emphasis on the social and cultural processes that underlie tobacco use patterns among this group. This project was undertaken in the Northern Territory and involved two sites: one in Darwin and one in a remote community in Arnhem Land.”

 

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The wellbeing of young Australians: technical report – Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth – March 2013

Posted on March 15, 2013. Filed under: Aboriginal TI Health, Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Status, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: , , , |

The wellbeing of young Australians: technical report – Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth – March 2013

ISBN 978-1-921352-40-9

Extract:

“The ARACY Report Card is unique, because it compares indicators of wellbeing for children and young people (aged 0–24 years) for the total Australian population, the Indigenous Australian population and international comparators. This comparison provides an international ‘barometer’ of the health and wellbeing of children and young people that can be used to guide policy direction in Australia.

The ARACY Report Card indicates Australia’s strengths and weaknesses, and points to areas where policies are required to improve outcomes for children and young people.”

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No Time to Wait: The Healthy Kids Strategy – Ontario Healthy Kids Panel – 4 March 2013

Posted on March 8, 2013. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Status | Tags: |

No Time to Wait: The Healthy Kids Strategy – Ontario Healthy Kids Panel – 4 March 2013

“Parents in Ontario want their children to grow up healthy, happy and ready to succeed in life. But, childhood overweight and obesity are undermining children’s health. Almost one in every three children in Ontario is now an unhealthy weight. The problem is more severe in boys than girls, and in Aboriginal children.

Overweight and obesity are threatening our children’s future and the future of our province, which looks to its children for the next generation of citizens and leaders. If our children are not healthy, then our society will not flourish. Overweight and obesity also threaten the sustainability of our health care system. In 2009, obesity cost Ontario $4.5 billion. To create a different future, we must act now!”

Media release

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Challenges and Opportunities for Change in Food Marketing to Children and Youth – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 4 March 2013

Posted on March 5, 2013. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Preventive Healthcare, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: , , , |

Challenges and Opportunities for Change in Food Marketing to Children and Youth – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 4 March 2013

Full text
“The childhood obesity epidemic is an urgent public health problem, and it will continue to take a substantial toll on the health of Americans. The most recent data show that almost a third of U.S. children and adolescents are overweight or obese. Children are exposed to an enormous amount of commercial advertising and marketing for food. In 2009, children age 2-11 saw and average of more than 10 television food ads per day. Internet-based advergames, cell phones, and social network marketing create even more avenues for children to be exposed to food advertisements. The marketing of high-calorie, low-nutrient foods and beverages is linked to overweight and obesity. A 2006 IOM report provided evidence that television advertising influences the food and beverage preferences, requests, and short-term consumption of children.

To review progress and explore opportunities for action on food and beverage marketing that targets children and youth, the IOM’s Standing Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention hosted a workshop on November 5, 2012. The workshop featured presentations and discussion on contemporary trends in marketing of foods and beverages to children and youth and the implications of those trends for obesity prevention. This document summarizes the workshop.”

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Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety: Stakeholder Concerns, Scientific Evidence, and Future Studies – Institute of Medicine – 16 January 2013

Posted on January 17, 2013. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Infectious Diseases | Tags: , , , , |

Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety: Stakeholder Concerns, Scientific Evidence, and Future Studies – Institute of Medicine – 16 January 2013

“Vaccines are among the most safe and effective public health interventions to prevent serious disease and death. Because of the success of vaccines, most Americans today have no firsthand experience with such devastating illnesses as polio or diphtheria. Health care providers who vaccinate young children follow a schedule prepared by the U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Under the current schedule, children younger than six may receive as many as 24 immunizations by their second birthday. New vaccines undergo rigorous testing prior to receiving FDA approval; however, like all medicines and medical interventions, vaccines carry some risk.

Driven largely by concerns about potential side effects, there has been a shift in some parents’ attitudes toward the child immunization schedule. HHS asked the IOM to identify research approaches, methodologies, and study designs that could address questions about the safety of the current schedule.

This report is the most comprehensive examination of the immunization schedule to date. The IOM committee uncovered no evidence of major safety concerns associated with adherence to the childhood immunization schedule. Should signals arise that there may be need for investigation, however, the report offers a framework for conducting safety research using existing or new data collection systems.”

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Exposing the Charade: the failure to protect children from unhealthy food advertising – Obesity Policy Coalition [Australia] – 12 November 2012

Posted on November 13, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Preventive Healthcare, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: , |

Exposing the Charade: the failure to protect children from unhealthy food advertising – Obesity Policy Coalition [Australia] – 12 November 2012

Media release:  Investigation finds inherent conflict of interest in self-regulation 

“Today, the Obesity Policy Coalition, a coalition of leading health bodies, has released one of the most comprehensive investigations into Australia’s self-regulatory system for food marketing ever undertaken.

Jane Martin, Executive Manager of the OPC, said the detailed analysis illustrated how the advertising codes that claim to protect children from junk food advertising had resolutely failed. Further, the report highlighted the litany of loopholes being used by the processed food industry to continue to promote their products despite childhood obesity sitting at record levels.

“We have rigorously interrogated the current system and found it has failed in three key ways:”

… continues on the site

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Patient Reported Experience Measure (PREM) for urgent and emergency care – Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health – October 2012

Posted on October 31, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Emergency Medicine, Patient Participation |

Patient Reported Experience Measure (PREM) for urgent and emergency care – Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health – October 2012

“PREMs for urgent and emergency care is a tool developed by the RCPCH with Picker Institute Europe to measure the experience of paediatric patients 0-16 years in all urgent and emergency care settings including; GP practices, out-of-hours centres, A&E departments and the ambulance service.”

… continues

The Development of a Patient Reported Experience Measure for Paediatrics Patients (0-16 years) in Urgent and Emergency Care: Research Report – October 2012  Final Report

Final Urgent and Emergency Care PREM tools

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Diabetes transition – Assessment of current best practice and development of a future work programme to improve transition processes for young people with diabetes – NHS Diabetes – 22 October 2012

Posted on October 24, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Diabetes |

Diabetes transition – Assessment of current best practice and development of a future work programme to improve transition processes for young people with diabetes – NHS Diabetes – 22 October 2012

“‘ Diabetes transition – Assessment of current best practice and development of a future work programme to improve transition processes for young people’ summarises the work by a number of small groups looking at transition in diabetes care and includes examples of good practice as well as principles for future consideration.”

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Can inter-sectoral collaboration improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health? – Human Resources for Health Knowledge Hub, University of NSW – 2012

Posted on October 23, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Infectious Diseases | Tags: |

Can inter-sectoral collaboration improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health? – Human Resources for Health Knowledge Hub, University of NSW – 2012

Alexandra Girdwood, Shanti Raman, Rachel Nicholls
9780733431616 (pbk.)

Questions addressed in this discussion paper:

ƒ Does inter-sectoral collaboration (ISC) improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH)?
ƒ How is effectiveness of ISC measured?
ƒ Why is collaboration functioning an important part of measuring effectiveness?

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Implementing evidence-based programmes in children’s services: key issues for success – Department for Education [UK] – September 2012

Posted on October 23, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Evidence Based Practice, Knowledge Translation | Tags: |

Implementing evidence-based programmes in children’s services: key issues for success – Department for Education [UK] – September 2012

“Evidence suggests that a carefully planned and well-resourced implementation is key to better outcomes and programme success. Across disciplines, implementation researchers have devised a number of frameworks that can be used to encourage the best practice in implementation and greatest fidelity to the original programme.

This report brings together the latest international thinking about the key issues relating to the implementation of evidence-based programmes, utilising both published work and expert opinion. The aim is to provide a summary of issues that should be considered and planned for by those about to start implementing a new programme in order to increase the chances of success; to draw attention to sources of further information; and to share lessons that have been learned by others when implementing similar programmes.

The research consisted of a literature review undertaken initially using snowballing techniques following the identification of key experts in the field. This was followed by a systematic search of electronic databases for previous reviews of implementation studies. For the second section of the report, electronic database searches were carried out for published academic papers relating to the MST, FFT, MTFC, and KEEP programmes.”

… continues on the site

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National action plan to tackle child abuse linked to faith or belief [UK] – August 2012

Posted on August 21, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: , |

National action plan to tackle child abuse linked to faith or belief [UK] – August 2012

This action plan was created to help raise awareness of the issue of child abuse linked to faith or belief and to encourage people to take practical steps to prevent such abuse. It has been developed in partnership with members of the National Working Group including central government and local statutory partners, faith leaders, voluntary sector organisations and the Metropolitan Police.

The action plan sets out actions which are being led by the Working Group members, both at a local and national level. It looks at tackling abuse linked to faith or belief from the perspective of the child, parent, community and faith group members and child practitioners. It is organised into four themes: engaging communities; empowering practitioners; supporting victims and witnesses; and communicating key messages.”

… continues on the site

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Costs of eating disorders in England: Economic impacts of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and other disorders, focussing on young people – beat – beating eating disorders – 31 July 2012

Posted on August 2, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Dietetics, Health Economics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol | Tags: |

Costs of eating disorders in England: Economic impacts of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and other disorders, focussing on young people – beat – beating eating disorders – 31 July 2012

“A newly released report carried out for Beat by a volunteer economist from the charity Pro Bono Economics (PBE) has found an overall estimated cost of £1.26billion per year to the English economy from eating disorders – and could be much higher.

The report sought to form a comprehensive view of the overall costs to society of eating disorders in England, especially amongst young people, and the costs to the NHS, employers and employees.

The report, by economist John Henderson volunteering with PBE, reveals overall healthcare costs estimated at £80-£100m, costs of reduced  GDP up to £2.9bn, and costs of reduced length of life and health up to £6.6bn.

With mental ill health representing up to 23% of the total burden of ill health in the UK, and estimated to double over the next 20 years, the findings of the report demonstrate the severity of the impact of eating disorders on society at large.

Beat has long campaigned for early intervention – “Eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of all mental health disorders” said Chief Executive Susan Ringwood. “It is vital that the individual is able to access the right specialist treatment as early as possible. Young lives are being disrupted at crucial stages in their development with loss of education, hindering career prospects and premature death. This report clearly demonstrates that healthcare costs would be better spent earlier to stop the effects on sufferers, their family and the community”. ”

… continues on the site

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Independent experts set out recommendations to improve children and young people’s health results – [England] Department of Health – 26 July 2012

Posted on August 1, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics |

Independent experts set out recommendations to improve children and young people’s health results – [England] Department of Health – 26 July 2012

“The Children and Young People’s Health Outcomes Forum has today published its proposals on how health-related care for children and young people can be improved.

The independent Forum, which was asked by the Secretary of State to help develop a new strategy for improving care for children and young people, identified several themes that it says are key to making the improvements needed:

putting children, young people and their families at the heart of what happens
acting early and intervening at the right time
integration and partnership
safe and sustainable services
workforce, education and training
knowledge and evidence
leadership, accountability and assurance
incentives.”

… continues on the site

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Listening to Troubled Families – Department for Communities and Local Government [England] – July 2012

Posted on July 24, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: , , |

Listening to Troubled Families – Department for Communities and Local Government [England] – July 2012

A report by Louise Casey CB, Department for Communities and Local Government

Extract from the introduction:

“The priority was to help families who were stuck with many problems, often responsible for causing problems, and also costing society a large amount of money in terms of the myriad of services that dealt with them without getting to the root causes; money spent simply containing families in dysfunction and hopelessness.”

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A Human Factors Guide to Enhance EHR Usability of Critical User Interactions when Supporting Pediatric Patient Care – National Institute of Standards and Technology – June 2012

Posted on July 20, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Informatics, Medical Records | Tags: , , , , |

A Human Factors Guide to Enhance EHR Usability of Critical User Interactions when Supporting Pediatric Patient Care – National Institute of Standards and Technology – June 2012 NIST

“Executive Summary

Adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems in hospitals and physician practices is accelerating. Usability of EHRs has been identified as an important factor impacting patient safety, and recommendations for improvement have been provided. Pediatric patients have unique characteristics that translate into unique EHR usability challenges. It is not surprising, then, that the adoption of EHRs by pediatric care providers has lagged behind adoption for adult care providers. In this document, we highlight important user interactions that are especially salient for pediatric care and hence to the EHR user-centered design process. These interactions and associated usability recommendations were identified by consensus during a series of teleconferences with experts representing the disciplines of human factors engineering, usability, informatics, and pediatrics in ambulatory care and pediatric intensive care. In addition, extensive peer review was provided by experts in pediatric informatics, emergency medicine, neonatology, pediatrics, human factors engineering, usability engineering,and software development and implementation.

This report details recommendations to enhance EHR usability when supporting pediatric patient care and also identifies promising areas for EHR innovation. Finally, we illustrate unique pediatric considerations in the context of representative clinical scenarios which may be helpful for formative user-centered design approaches and summative usability evaluations.”

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Undiagnosed illness in Cambodia – WHO Global Alert and Response – 4 July 2012

Posted on July 5, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Infectious Diseases | Tags: , |

Undiagnosed illness in Cambodia – WHO Global Alert and Response – 4 July 2012

“The Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Cambodia has notified WHO of an outbreak of an undiagnosed illness which has affected 62 children, of which 61 have died since April 2012.

The majority of cases were from the southern part of the country, and were hospitalised in a children’s hospital in Phnom Penh. The symptoms observed are high fever, followed by respiratory and/or neurologic symptoms with rapid deterioration of respiratory functions.

WHO is working with the Ministry and other partners to investigate the outbreak, to identify the cause and source of the illness. Assistance is being provided in the area of field epidemiology and active case finding.”

More
http://www.geostrategicforecasting.com/proedr-undiagnosed-illness-fatal-child/

http://rendezvous.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/07/04/whats-killing-cambodias-children/

http://www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=20120704.1190037

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Practice standards for young people with substance misuse problems – Royal College of Psychiatrists – 27 June 2012

Posted on July 3, 2012. Filed under: Alcohol & Drug Dep., Child Health / Paediatrics |

Practice standards for young people with substance misuse problems – Royal College of Psychiatrists – 27 June 2012

“Drug and alcohol misuse among young people is a major problem, although overall use is starting to decline. The UK has one of the highest rates of young people’s cannabis use and binge drinking in Europe, with some 13,000 hospital admissions linked to young people’s drinking each year. In recent years the number of specialist services for drug and alcohol misuse has increased so that young people can get the treatment they need. In 2010-2011 the number of under-18s accessing these services was 21,955.

The new standards have been developed by the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Centre for Quality Improvement (CCQI) in partnership with substance misuse organisations, paediatricians, psychologists and nurses.They are aimed at all staff in contact with young people aged 18 or under (in universal, targeted and specialist services) across health, social care, education, youth justice system, and the voluntary and community sector.

The standards propose that services invest in the psychosocial development and well-being of young people with substance misuse problems to give them the best chance of a normal life through:”

… continues on the site

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Indigenous Early Childhood Development. New Directions: Mothers and Babies Services – Auditor-General Audit Report – 29 May 2012

Posted on May 31, 2012. Filed under: Aboriginal TI Health, Child Health / Paediatrics |

Indigenous Early Childhood Development. New Directions: Mothers and Babies Services – Auditor-General Audit Report – 29 May 2012

ISSN 1036–7632    ISBN 0 654 81242 X

Media release: A Better Start for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Babies and Children

“A report released today by the Australian National Audit office (ANAO) has confirmed that the New Directions: Mothers and Babies Services program is being effectively administered to improve the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and their children.”

… continues

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Digital service launched for new parents – NHS – 18 May 2012

Posted on May 21, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Obstetrics |

Digital service launched for new parents – NHS – 18 May 2012

“The NHS Information Service for Parents, launched today by the Prime Minister, will give new parents information and advice they can trust covering a wide range of issues related to staying healthy in pregnancy, preparing for birth and looking after their baby.
https://www.nhs.uk/InformationServiceForParents/pages/home.aspx

By signing up to the service, parents-to-be and new parents will receive regular emails and text messages containing relevant and timely NHS approved advice as their pregnancy develops and as their child grows.

Links to videos showing midwives demonstrating practical advice such as bathing your baby, and parents discussing issues that affected them and how they supported each other, will also be sent at appropriate times.”

… continues on the site

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Computing cluster speeds targeted treatments for childhood cancer – Healthcare IT News – 18 May 2012

Posted on May 21, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Genomics, Oncology |

Computing cluster speeds targeted treatments for childhood cancer – Healthcare IT News – 18 May 2012

Mike Miliard, Managing Editor

“AUSTIN – Cloud-based research technology launched by Dell last year for the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) is gearing up for what’s billed as the world’s first precision medicine clinical trial for pediatric cancer.

James Coffin, vice president and general manager, Dell Healthcare and Life Sciences, says the eight-teraflop supercomputer, billed as the “kids cloud,” will drastically reduce the time required to identify personalized treatments for children participating in the trial program – kids who have no time to spare. In turn, that acceleration can help open the trials up to participation from more children.

The Human Genome Project “took $3 billion and 10 years” to sequence the first genome, he points out. “A year ago, it took about nine months and cost about $400,000 or $500,000 to do a full genome.”

And recently, says Coffin, “we just ran a test for a full genome for a patient, and got all the the results and made a clinical decision for the patient to the tumor board in less than five days.”

Dell has “done a lot of work to retune the codes and make them run really fast on this platform,” he says. “Just three months ago, the analysis of 25 million bases – there’s usually about 500 or 600 million bases you have to do to kind of do this whole genome sequence – and 25 million bases took about 48 hours.”

Now, that time is down to six hours.”

… continues on the site

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Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2009 / 2010 survey – WHO Regional Office for Europe – 2 May 2012

Posted on May 15, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Status, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: |

Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2009 / 2010 survey – WHO Regional Office for Europe – 2 May 2012

Currie C et al., eds. Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2009/2010 survey. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2012 (Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 6).
ISBN 978 92 890 1423 6

Extract from the introduction

“HBSC, a WHO collaborative cross-national study, collects data on 11-, 13- and 15-year-old boys’ and girls’ health and well-being, social environments and health behaviours every four years. Full contact details can be found on the HBSC web site (1).
HBSC uses findings at national and international levels:
• to gain new insight into young people’s health and well-being
• to understand the social determinants of health
• inform policy and practice to improve young people’s lives.
The first HBSC survey was conducted in 1983/1984 in five countries. The study has grown to include 43 countries and regions across Europe and North America. The table shows the growth in the international network over the eight survey rounds.”

Key findings

WHO site

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Alliances for Obesity Prevention: Finding Common Ground – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 11 May 2012

Posted on May 14, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Preventive Healthcare, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: , , |

Alliances for Obesity Prevention: Finding Common Ground – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 11 May 2012

Full text

“What do obesity prevention groups have in common with the Federal Reserve and the National Gardening Association? In October 2011, the Institute of Medicine’s Standing Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention hosted a workshop in order to hear from organizations, movements, and sectors with the potential to be allies for obesity prevention, and to identify common ground and engender dialogue among them. The workshop speakers discussed how to develop innovative alliances that can bring synergies to efforts and resources, accelerate progress, and sustain efforts toward obesity prevention. They explored common ground for joint activities and mutual successes, and lessons learned from efforts at aligning diverse groups with goals in common. This document summarizes the workshop.”

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Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2009/2010 survey – WHO/Europe – 2 May 2012

Posted on May 4, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Status | Tags: , , |

Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2009/2010 survey – WHO/Europe – 2 May 2012

“Through this international report on the results of its most recent survey, the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study supplies the up-to-date information needed by policy-makers at various levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, and professionals in sectors such as health, education, social services, justice and recreation.

The latest addition to a series of HBSC reports on young people’s health, this report presents findings from the 2009/2010 survey on the demographic and social influences on the health of young people (aged 11, 13 and 15 years) in 43 countries and regions in the WHO European Region and North America. Responding to the survey, the young people described their social context (relations with family, peers and school), physical health and satisfaction with life, health behaviours (patterns of eating, tooth brushing and physical activity) and risk behaviours (use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis, sexual behaviour, fighting and bullying). Statistical analyses were carried out to identify meaningful differences in the prevalence of health and social indicators by gender, age group and levels of family affluence.

The aim was to provide a rigorous, systematic statistical base for describing cross-national patterns, in terms of the magnitude and direction of differences between subgroups, thus contributing to a better understanding of the social determinants of health and well-being among young people, and providing the means to help protect and promote their health.”

Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 6
ISBN 978 92 890 1423 6

Key findings and five fact sheets

Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)

Media release:      What we publish – WHO report reveals teenagers do not get a fair deal on health

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Standards for Children and Young People in Emergency Care Settings 3rd ed – Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health – 3 May 2012

Posted on May 4, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Emergency Medicine | Tags: |

Standards for Children and Young People in Emergency Care Settings 3rd ed – Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health – 3 May 2012

“Developed by the Intercollegiate Committee for Standards for Children and Young People in Emergency Care Settings, this revised edition provides healthcare professionals, providers and service planners with measurable and auditable standards of care applicable to all urgent and emergency care settings in the UK.

The 2012 edition reflects changes in the way care is delivered: there is a new chapter focusing on mental health and substance misuse and the document takes a ‘pathway’ approach to aid a multi-professional workforce. Most importantly, this edition shifts from making recommendations to setting standards, giving healthcare professionals the guidance they need to provide the best service for children and young people along the care pathway.”

Media release:  New standards set for emergency care of children and young people – Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health – 3 May 2012

“From mental health, substance and alcohol abuse to major incidents involving serious injury or death, thousands of children and young people pass through the NHS each day needing emergency care.  Now, a new series of standards set out minimum requirements for how children in emergency settings should be treated – covering areas from service design and environment to staff training and safeguarding.

The standards appear in the third edition of a publication formerly known as the ‘Red Book’, which is widely used by healthcare professionals in the UK to improve care of children in emergency settings. This latest edition, renamed ‘Standards for children and young people in emergency care settings’, is unique in containing not only guidance, but also specific standards against which healthcare providers can be measured.

The standards have been developed by the Intercollegiate Committee for Standards for Children and Young People in Emergency Care Settings led by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and are designed to help service planners overcome some of the key challenges in emergency healthcare – including the impact of the European Working Time Directive which sets maximum daily and weekly working hours and increased public expectation of immediate access to care.”

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Consultant Delivered Care: An Evaluation of new ways of working in paediatrics – Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) – 26 April 2012

Posted on April 27, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Consultant Delivered Care: An Evaluation of new ways of working in paediatrics – Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) – 26 April 2012

The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) published its report Consultant Delivered Care: An Evaluation of new ways of working in paediatrics

The report concludes that children would receive better care if they had 24/7 access to a consultant or equivalent senior doctor.

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Are We Doing Enough? A status report on Canadian public policy and child and youth health – Canadian Pediatric Society – 2012

Posted on April 18, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion |

Are We Doing Enough? A status report on Canadian public policy and child and youth health – Canadian Pediatric Society – 2012

ISSN 1913-5645

“In this fourth edition of Are We Doing Enough?, the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) continues to assess key indicators of child and youth health at the provincial/ territorial and federal levels. In addition to rating progress on these indicators, we outline specific actions to improve the legislative and public policy environments. These actions are based on clear need and on evidence that government intervention is effective. We hope this approach will provide direction to help policy-makers act in the best interests of children and youth.”

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Social and emotional wellbeing: development of a children’s headline indicator – AIHW – 10 April 2012

Posted on April 11, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Social and emotional wellbeing: development of a children’s headline indicator – AIHW – 10 April 2012

“A child’s social and emotional wellbeing is integral to their overall health, development and wellbeing. Children with high levels of social and emotional wellbeing are more likely to successfully negotiate physical, intellectual and social challenges during childhood and adolescence. This report describes the process of developing a Children’s Headline Indicator to measure social and emotional wellbeing. It presents research evidence on the links between social and emotional wellbeing and children’s health, development and wellbeing outcomes; assesses potential indicators and data sources; and recommends an indicator of social and emotional wellbeing for Australian children.”

ISBN 978-1-74249-287-2; Cat. no. PHE 158; 77pp

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Child Maltreatment Research, Policy, and Practice for the Next Decade – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 5 April 2012

Posted on April 10, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: , |

Child Maltreatment Research, Policy, and Practice for the Next Decade – Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine – 5 April 2012

Full text

“In 1993, the National Research Council (NRC) released Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect, which highlighted child maltreatment as a devastating social problem in America. The report noted that abuse and neglect were the cause of thousands of child deaths each year, and research in the field of child maltreatment was relatively undeveloped. The services required for children who had been abused or neglected cost millions of dollars annually. To reduce the physical and emotional tolls of child maltreatment, the report called for a wide-ranging research program.

Nearly 20 years later, child maltreatment research has greatly expanded, however, many critical gaps in knowledge remain. On January 30-31, 2012, the IOM and NRC’s Board on Children, Youth, and Families held a workshop to review the accomplishments of the past two decades of research related to child maltreatment, identify remaining gaps, and consider potential research priorities. This document summarizes the workshop.”

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The role of school nurses in providing emergency contraception services in educational settings – Royal College of Nursing – 3 April 2012

Posted on April 5, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Nursing | Tags: |

The role of school nurses in providing emergency contraception services in educational settings – Royal College of Nursing – 3 April 2012

“The role of school nurses has extended to provide emergency contraception and advice on sexual health to school-age students in education settings, following OFSTED’s report on sex and relationship education in schools (2006). This updated RCN position statement aims to clarify the responsibilities of school nurses when they are providing emergency contraception to students in education settings. It also highlights the importance of appropriate training, experience and working together with education providers and looks at the laws around providing emergency contraception to under 16s and the duty of confidentiality.”

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Core competences: for nursing children and young people – Royal College of Nursing – 2 April 2012

Posted on April 5, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Nursing | Tags: |

Core competences: for nursing children and young people – Royal College of Nursing – 2 April 2012

ISBN: 978-1-906633-96-7

Abstract:

“The RCN publication Services for children and young people: preparing nurses for future roles (2004) identified core children and young people (CYP) nursing role descriptors and competences. These were used as a starting point and mapped against Knowledge and Skills Framework (KSF) dimensions to identify potential competences for inclusion in these new nursing competences. This publication presents a detailed explanation of six areas of competence that are specific to the nursing care of children and young people. These provide a useful resource for undertaking a review of educational curricula and for anyone seeking to develop, review or influence career and competence framework development in this area of practice. It also provides the basis for competence frameworks for specialist areas of children’s and young people’s nursing.”

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Developmental Health Knowledge as a Catalyst for Healthy Family Policies in Canada – April 2012

Posted on April 4, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion | Tags: |

Developmental Health Knowledge as a Catalyst for Healthy Family Policies in Canada – April 2012

“This briefing note, prepared by the Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit (SPHERU), defines developmental health, discusses its social determinants, shows some key figures for Canada and proposes a healthy family policy framework to support health for all Canadians.

Developmental science has shown the lifelong importance of early years on human learning, behaviour, and physical and mental health. Interventions that support developmental health from birth to age five contribute to establishing the foundations for a healthy life and a prosperous society.

This short document discusses how developmental health knowledge can act as a catalyst for family policies that support developmental health for all children in Canada and for the health of Canadian society more generally.”

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The chroming report: a Government framework for children-in-care – Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian – 10 November 2011

Posted on April 4, 2012. Filed under: Alcohol & Drug Dep., Child Health / Paediatrics |

The chroming report: a Government framework for children-in-care – Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian – 10 November 2011

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The Health of Canada’s Young People: a mental health focus – Public Health Agency of Canada – 2011

Posted on March 29, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Status, Mental Health Psychi Psychol | Tags: |

The Health of Canada’s Young People: a mental health focus – Public Health Agency of Canada – 2011

Cat.: 978-1-100-19335-9     ISBN: HP15-13/2011E

John G. Freeman, Matthew King, and William Pickett with Wendy Craig, Frank Elgar, Ian Janssen, and Don Klinger
214 pages

“Executive summary

The health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (hBSC) is a continuing, cross-national research project conducted in collaboration with the WhO Regional Office for Europe. there are now 43 participating countries and regions from North America and Europe. the study aims to contribute to new knowledge about the health, well-being, and health behaviours of young people (aged 11 to 15 years). hBSC is Canada’s only national-level health promotion database for this age group. the Federal Government has supported the Canadian hBSC study since 1988.

This report presents key findings from the 2010 cycle of hBSC. Current priorities for the public health system in Canada are particularly emphasized. As the hBSC study has traditionally focused upon the importance of social settings and conditions as potential determinants of health, this focus continues in the current report. in addition, this report examines the mental health of young Canadians as a primary theme.

In addition to our analysis of survey results from over 26,000 students, this report was informed by findings from a national youth engagement workshop. the purpose of this workshop was to obtain insights from a cross-section of young Canadians with respect to the key mental health findings. Efforts made to integrate the perspectives of young people directly into this report were driven by a philosophy that the opinions and insights of youth matter and the Federal Government’s role in supporting youth engagement through its committment to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. this represents a new initiative for hBSC in Canada, with interpretation of the national report findings being enriched by this  process.”

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Think child, think parent, think family: Putting it into practice – Social Care Institute for Excellence – February 2012

Posted on March 29, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol | Tags: |

Think child, think parent, think family: Putting it into practice – Social Care Institute for Excellence – February 2012

“Key messages

Parents with mental health problems and their children need services that are effective and accessible for the family.
Getting it right for families is hard given workloads and organisational barriers, but can help tackle problems now and across generations.
Implementation sites in England and Northern Ireland have developed promising ways to ‘think family’ and improve services as a result.
By raising awareness, developing strategic goals, training staff and tackling stigma, sites have created the conditions for think family working to flourish.
By thinking family throughout the care pathway, individual staff can make small but effective changes for parents and children.
Further work in this area could produce further improvements.”

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Join Us On Our Journey: developing a new model of care for children and young people with type 1 diabetes. Final report for NHS Diabetes – March 2012

Posted on March 27, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Diabetes | Tags: |

Join Us On Our Journey: developing a new model of care for children and young people with type 1 diabetes. Final report for NHS Diabetes – March 2012

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Child deaths – cyber bullying as a risk factor for youth suicide – Queensland Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian – March 2012

Posted on March 27, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol | Tags: , |

Child deaths – cyber bullying as a risk factor for youth suicide – Queensland Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian – March 2012

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Join Us on Our Journey – Developing a new model of care for children and young people with Type 1 diabetes – NHS Diabetes – March 2012

Posted on March 22, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Diabetes | Tags: , |

Join Us on Our Journey – Developing a new model of care for children and young people with Type 1 diabetes – NHS Diabetes – March 2012

April 2009 – April 2012

Background

NHS Diabetes commissioned Leeds Metropolitan University to undertake a research project called ‘Join Us on Our Journey’, to look at Type 1 diabetes service provision for children and young people across the Yorkshire and the Humber region. The original idea for ‘Join Us on Our Journey’ was developed by exploring the experiences of children and young people with Type 1 diabetes, their parents and professionals working in the field; the model incorporates the phrase ‘bus stops’ which was created by children and young people to describe the various points along their diabetes journey where they felt they needed to ‘get off the bus’ to access support (medical, emotional, social or educational) from different professionals and organisations.

Aim of this project

To develop and pilot a model of care that will deliver the aspirations of the policy document, ‘Making Every Young Person with Diabetes Matter’.
The ‘Join Us on Our Journey’ model will be used to improve the care provision for children and young people with Type 1 diabetes in England.”

… continues on the site

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Getting it right for children, young people and families [UK] – Vision and model for school nursing sets out framework for local services – 12 March 2012

Posted on March 14, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Nursing | Tags: |

Getting it right for children, young people and families – Vision and model for school nursing sets out framework for local services [UK] – 12 March 2012

“A vision and call to action for school nursing services is published today. It sets out an ambition that the service vision and model for school nursing services developed through the School Nursing Development Programme will be a framework for local services that meet both current and future needs

These should be services that are visible, accessible and confidential, which deliver universal public health and ensure that there is early help and extra support available to children and young people at the times when they need it. They should also include services to help children and young people with illness or disability within the school and beyond.

Getting it right for children, young people and families sets out the result of the first year of development work undertaken by the Department of Health, Department for Education, key partner organisations, professionals and children and young people themselves.”

… continues

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Getting it right for children, young people and families – Vision and model for school nursing sets out framework for local services [UK] – 12 March 2012

Posted on March 14, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Nursing | Tags: |

Getting it right for children, young people and families – Vision and model for school nursing sets out framework for local services [UK] – 12 March 2012

“A vision and call to action for school nursing services is published today. It sets out an ambition that the service vision and model for school nursing services developed through the School Nursing Development Programme will be a framework for local services that meet both current and future needs

These should be services that are visible, accessible and confidential, which deliver universal public health and ensure that there is early help and extra support available to children and young people at the times when they need it. They should also include services to help children and young people with illness or disability within the school and beyond.

Getting it right for children, young people and families sets out the result of the first year of development work undertaken by the Department of Health, Department for Education, key partner organisations, professionals and children and young people themselves.”

… continues

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Think child, think parent, think family: Final evaluation report – Parental mental health – Final evaluation: Learning lessons and putting it into practice – Social Care Institute for Excellence [UK] – 6 March 2012

Posted on March 13, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol |

Think child, think parent, think family: Final evaluation report – Parental mental health – Final evaluation: Learning lessons and putting it into practice – Social Care Institute for Excellence [UK] – 6 March 2012

“Getting it right for families affected by parental mental ill health can be challenging. A new evaluation report from SCIE the shows how ten implementation sites have tackled some of the barriers to providing holistic support. The implementation sites have consisted of five English local authority areas and the five Northern Ireland Health and Social Care Trusts.

The sites have worked to implement the recommendations of SCIE’s Think child, think parent, think family guide. Launched in 2009, this has provided advice and guidance on effective support that addresses children’s needs,whilst recognising the parental responsibilities of adults with mental health problems.

The sites found a range of ways to implement the recommendations, including: ”

… continues on the site

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Bringing Networks to Life – An RCPCH guide to implementing Clinical Networks – Networks for children’s health services – March 2012

Posted on March 13, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Mgmt Policy Planning |

Bringing Networks to Life – An RCPCH guide to implementing Clinical Networks – Networks for children’s health services – March 2012

“As health policy across the UK increasingly looks to supporting new models of service planning across clinical and geographical boundaries, it is important that the benefits of integration, networks of care and partnership working are exploited to deliver high quality care to children according to their needs.

The documents and links below set out the College’s position on networks and provide some examples of effective joint working in particular specialities.”

… continues on the site

Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health

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Safe and Effective Medicines for Children: Pediatric Studies Conducted Under BPCA and PREA – IOM – 29 February 2012

Posted on March 1, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Pharmacy | Tags: |

Safe and Effective Medicines for Children: Pediatric Studies Conducted Under BPCA and PREA – IOM – 29 February 2012

full text   Institute of Medicine

“Until 1997, most drugs used to treat children were tested for safety and effectiveness only in adults. It was then that Congress and the FDA created policies – including what are now the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) and the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) – to encourage more pediatric studies of drugs used for children. The FDA asked the IOM to review aspects of pediatric studies and changes in product labeling that resulted from BPCA and PREA and their predecessor policies, as well as to assess the incentives for pediatric studies of biologics – drugs derived from human or animal sources, or microorganisms – and the extent to which biologics have been studied in children.

The IOM committee concludes that policies included in BPCA and PREA have helped provide clinicians who care for children with better information about the efficacy, safety, and appropriate prescribing of drugs. The IOM suggests that more can be done to increase knowledge about drugs used by children and thereby improve the clinical care, health, and well-being of the nation’s children.”

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State of the World’s Children 2012: Children in an Urban World – UNICEF – 27 February 2012

Posted on February 29, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

State of the World’s Children 2012: Children in an Urban World – UNICEF – 27 February 2012

“Almost half the world’s children now live in urban areas; the report calls for greater emphasis on identifying and meeting their needs.”

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Investing in Public Programs Matters: How State Policies Impact Children’s Lives – January 2012

Posted on February 2, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Investing in Public Programs Matters: How State Policies Impact Children’s Lives – January 2012

2012 STATE Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI)

“The FCD Child Well-Being Index (CWI) is a national, research-based composite measure, updated annually, that describes how young people in the United States have fared since 1975. The CWI is the nation’s most comprehensive measure of trends in the quality-of-life of children and youth. It combines national data from 28 indicators across seven domains into a single number that reflects overall child well-being.”

“Key Findings
The key findings from this study are:
• Higher State Taxes Are Better for Children. States that have higher tax rates generate higher revenues and have higher CWI values than states with lower tax rates.
• Public Investments in Children Matter. The amount of public investments in programs is strongly related to CWI values among states. Specifically, higher per-pupil spending on education, higher Medicaid child-eligibility thresholds, and higher levels of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) benefits show a substantial correlation with child well-being across states.
• A Child’s Well-Being Is Strongly Related to the State Where He or She Lives. Child well-being varies tremendously from state to state, ranging from a 0.85 index value for New Jersey, the highest ranked state, to a negative 0.96 index value for New Mexico, the lowest-ranked state.”

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Child protection Australia 2010–11 – AIHW – 20 January 2012

Posted on January 31, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Child protection Australia 2010–11 – AIHW – 20 January 2012

“This report contains comprehensive information on state and territory child protection and support services, and the characteristics of Australian children within the child protection system. Key findings include: Since 2009-10, the number of children subject to a notification decreased by 13% from 187,314 to 163,767; Since 2006-07, the number of children subject to a substantiation of a notification has decreased by 7% from 34,028 to 31,527 (6.9 to 6.1 per 1,000 children); The number of children in out-of-home care has increased by 5% from 35,895 in 2010 to 37,648 in 2011.”

ISSN 1320-081X; ISBN 978-1-74249-274-2; Cat. no. CWS 41; 142pp

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WHO Growth Chart Training Program – Dietitians of Canada – online learning course

Posted on January 17, 2012. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Dietetics | Tags: , |

WHO Growth Chart Training Program – Dietitians of Canada – online learning course

“The WHO Growth Chart Training Program is an evidence-based, self-learning package designed for primary care and public health practitioners. It has been developed through a collaboration led by Dietitians of Canada and includes the Canadian Paediatric Society, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, Community Health Nurses of Canada, National Aboriginal Health Organization, Canadian Obesity Network and NutriSTEP®. Reviewer reference groups from each professional collaborating organization, as well as provincial/territorial representatives responsible for implementation of the WHO Growth Charts within their jurisdictions, helped to shape this training program.

THERE IS NO FEE for this program. Dietitians of Canada gratefully acknowledges funding for this project made possible through a contribution from the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). The views expressed in the training package do not necessarily represent the views of PHAC.

There are 5 modules in the training package, each with the following features:

•An automated power point video with voice over instruction
•Evidence-based practice guidance
•Case scenarios and/or reflective practice questions to facilitate application of the module content to practice
•Pre-and post self-scoring knowledge evaluation
•Self-scoring “pop” quizzes throughout each module
•References and resources for further study
•A personal certificate of completion of each module
•Opportunity to provide feedback on the module
Each module takes approximately 45-60 minutes to complete at a time, place and pace convenient for you. While it is recommended that you use all of the training modules in sequence, the package is designed so that you can select those modules that you feel are most relevant to your learning needs.”

Module 1 – Introduction to the WHO Growth Charts
Module 2 – Monitoring Growth: Measurements and Calculations
Module 3 – Interpreting the WHO Growth Charts
Module 4 – Childhood Obesity
Module 5 – Counselling to Promote Healthy Growth and Development

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Counting the costs of cancer report – CLIC Sargent – December 2011

Posted on December 9, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Economics, Oncology |

Counting the costs of cancer report – CLIC Sargent – December 2011

“About the report
CLIC Sargent has published new research which found that many families have to bear significant additional financial costs as a result of supporting their child through their cancer diagnosis. Counting the costs of cancer reflects the experiences of young people aged 16-24, as well as parents, to understand the specific issues faced by children and young people with cancer.”

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Cancer in adolescents and young adults in Australia – AIHW – 1 December 2011

Posted on December 6, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Oncology | Tags: |

Cancer in adolescents and young adults in Australia – AIHW – 1 December 2011

‘Cancer in adolescents and young adults in Australia’ presents the latest available incidence, survival and mortality statistics on cancer in young Australians aged 15 to 29. The incidence of cancer in this age group has become steady since the mid-1990s while cancer mortality has fallen between 1983 and 2007. Survival from cancer in adolescents and young adults has been relatively high and has improved with time, although cancer outcomes vary across population groups.

ISSN 1039-3307; ISBN 978-1-74249-233-9; Cat. no. CAN 59; 102pp

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Surgery in Children: Are We There Yet? A review of organisational and clinical aspects of children’s surgery- National Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Deaths (NCEPOD) – 2011

Posted on October 31, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Patient Safety, Surgery | Tags: |

Surgery in Children: Are We There Yet? A review of organisational and clinical aspects of children’s surgery- National Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Deaths (NCEPOD)  – 2011

“This NCEPOD report highlights the process of care of children less than 18 years of age, including neonates who died within 30 days of emergency or elective surgery on the same admission. The report takes a critical look at areas where the care of patients might have been improved. Remediable factors have also been identified in the clinical and the organisational care of these patients.”

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effectiveness of Treatment in At-Risk Preschoolers; Long- Term Effectiveness in All Ages; and Variability in Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment – AHRQ Effective Health Care Program – 21 October 2011

Posted on October 26, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: , |

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effectiveness of Treatment in At-Risk Preschoolers; Long- Term Effectiveness in All Ages; and Variability in Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment – AHRQ Effective Health Care Program – 21 October 2011

Press release: Report Finds Parent Training Effective for Treating Young Children With ADHD 

“Formal training in parenting strategies is a low-risk, effective method for improving behavior in preschool-age children at risk for developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), while there is less evidence supporting the use of medications for children younger than 6 years old, according to a new report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

The report found that formal parenting interventions—known as parent behavior training or PBT—are supported by strong evidence for effectiveness for children younger than the age of 6, with no reports of complications or harms. However, one large barrier to the success of PBT is parents who drop out of therapy programs, the report found. For children older than age 6, the report found that methylphenidate (sold under the brand name Ritalin) and another drug used to treat ADHD symptoms, atomoxetine (sold as Strattera), are generally safe and effective for improving behavior, but their effects beyond 12 to 24 months have not been well studied. Little information is available about the long-term effects of other medications used to treat ADHD symptoms. ”  … continues on the site

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An Exploratory Analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Indigenous Children – Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, ANU – 2011

Posted on September 29, 2011. Filed under: Aboriginal TI Health, Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Status |

An Exploratory Analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Indigenous Children – Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, ANU – 2011

ISSN: 1442 3871      ISBN: 0 7315 4976 7

“Abstract
The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) or Footprints in Time is the first large-scale longitudinal survey in Australia to focus on the development of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) children. The analysis presented in this paper is structured around six research questions using the LSIC: the size and composition of Indigenous children’s families and households; how key measures of parental wellbeing are associated with family and household structure and how they change through time; the factors associated with different types of early childhood education attendance; how household characteristics vary across the sample and how they change through time; how self-reported measures of the quality of the community in which a person lives compare with other neighbourhood-level indicators; and how migration is related to self-reported measures of the community and other area-level characteristics. The conclusions from the analysis in this paper are but a small subset of the insights that will emerge from analysis of the LSIC as more researchers make use of it and a greater number of waves and variables become available. Ultimately, in addition to ethically conducted randomised controlled trials, longitudinal databases are arguably the most effective source of data for designing evidence-based policy. One of the greatest contributions of the LSIC (and this paper) may be to demonstrate the feasibility and desirability of having such evidence for all Indigenous Australians, not just children.”

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Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health, WHO – PMNCH 2011 Report – 20 September 2011

Posted on September 28, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health, WHO  – PMNCH 2011 Report – 20 September 2011

“Foreword

On behalf of the board and secretariat of The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH), we are pleased to introduce this 2011 report, Analysing Commitments to Advance the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health.

This report seeks to further our collective understanding of the current Global Strategy commitments, facilitating more effective advocacy to advance the Every Woman, Every Child effort, as well as greater accountability in line with the recommendations of the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health.

This 2011 report is based on structured interviews with those who made commitments, supplemented by reviews of related documentation. This report analyses the specific nature of each commitment recorded through May 2011 to produce a preliminary picture of the achievements of the Global Strategy commitments to date, as well as to identify opportunities and challenges for advancement.

It has been only a year since the Global Strategy was launched and the first commitments were made. This report does not attempt to present a comprehensive picture of progress, nor is it mandated to do so. Rather, our goal is to spark discussion to inform future reporting and analysis, taking the view that accountability cannot start too early.”

… continues on the site

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Standards for assessing, measuring and monitoring vital signs in infants, children and young people. RCN guidance for children’s nurses and nurses working with children and young people – 2011

Posted on September 16, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Standards for assessing, measuring and monitoring vital signs in infants, children and young people. RCN guidance for children’s nurses and nurses working with children and young people – 2011

Extract from the introduction

“The assessment,measurement and monitoring of vital signs are important basic skills for all practitioners working with infants, children and young people.This guidance applies to health care professionals who work in acute settings as well as practitioners who work in GP surgeries,walk-in clinics,NHS 24 and NHS Direct, schools and other community settings (Cook and Montgomery, 2006).The vital signs included in this document are temperature, heart/pulse rate, respiratory rate and effort, blood pressure, pain assessment and level of consciousness. Important information gained by assessing and measuring these vital signs can be indicators of health and ill health.However,we believe they should not be performed in isolation to the broader observation and assessment of the infant, child or young person.”  … continues

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Improving the standard of care of children with kidney disease through paediatric nephrology networks – August 2011 – NHS Kidney Care – August 2011

Posted on September 6, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Nephrology |

Improving the standard of care of children with kidney disease through paediatric nephrology networks – NHS Kidney Care – August 2011
Report of a working party of Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, British Association for Paediatric Nephrology, NHS Kidney Care

Contents
1. The case for change
2. What is a network?
3. Current structures for delivery of care
3.1 Overall structure
3.2 Population bases
3.3 Access to service
3.4 Inter-relationships with other services
3.5 Patient and carer involvement
3.6 Information technology
3.7 Research and audit
4. Commissioning
5. Quality Standards
5.1 Clinical competences
5.2 Disease specific referral criteria
5.3 Disease specific quality standards
6. Workforce Planning
6.1 Tertiary paediatric nephrologists
6.2 Paediatricians with a special interest in paediatric nephrology (SPIN)
6.3 Link paediatricians6.4 Paediatric renal nurses
6.5 Dieticians
6.6 Other allied health professionals
7. References

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National Evaluation of Safe Start Promising Approaches. Assessing Program Outcomes – RAND – 2011

Posted on August 30, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Violence | Tags: |

National Evaluation of Safe Start Promising Approaches. Assessing Program Outcomes – RAND – 2011

by Lisa H. Jaycox, Laura J. Hickman, Dana Schultz, Dionne Barnes-Proby, Claude Messan Setodji, Aaron Kofner, Racine Harris, Joie Acosta, Taria Francois

“Safe Start Promising Approaches (SSPA) is the second phase of a community-based initiative focused on developing and fielding interventions to prevent and reduce the impact of children’s exposure to violence (CEV). This report shares the results of SSPA, which was intended to implement and evaluate promising and evidence-based programs in community settings. Fifteen program sites across the country were selected to implement a range of interventions for helping children and families cope with the effects of CEV. The settings, populations served, intervention types, types of violence addressed, community partners, and program goals differed across the 15 sites. The main body of this report provides information on the designs of the studies, instruments used, data collection and cleaning, analytic methods, and an overview of the results across the 15 sites. The appendixes provide a detailed description of the outcome evaluation conducted at each SSPA program, including a description of the enrollees, enrollment and retention, the amount and type of services received, and child and family outcomes over time.”

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Safe and Sustainable: Review of Children’s Congenital Heart Services in England – Health Impact Assessment: Interim Report – August 2011

Posted on August 11, 2011. Filed under: Cardiol / Cardiothor Surg, Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Safe and Sustainable: Review of Children’s Congenital Heart Services in England – Health Impact Assessment: Interim Report – August 2011    NHS Specialised Commissioning Team

Extract from the introduction:

“In April 2010 the NHS published Safe and Sustainable: The Need for Change which set out proposals for a new model of provision for children’s heart surgery1 in England. It envisaged fewer, larger specialist surgical centres working within regional paediatric cardiology networks delivering care as close as possible to the child’s home.

Safe and Sustainable aims to develop a national service with better clinical outcomes and a trained clinical workforce which is expert in the care and treatment of children and young people with congenital heart disease. This review is being managed by National Specialised Commissioning Team (NSCT) on behalf of the ten Specialised Commissioning Groups (SCGs) in England2 and their constituent Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). Its scope includes England and Wales.3

The Safe and Sustainable Review was instigated in response to concerns among clinicians, professional organisations and parents regarding the future resilience of the existing 11 surgical centres which currently provide paediatric cardiac surgery. There have been long-standing doubts about whether some of these centres are performing a sufficient number of complex procedures to maintain and develop specialist skills.4 In 2006, a national workshop of surgical experts, together with other NHS staff and parent groups, endorsed the view that the current configuration of services in England was unsustainable.5 This view was  then echoed by an independent report by the Royal College of Surgeons in 2007.

Responding to these concerns, the Safe and Sustainable Review proposed reducing the number of centres providing children’s heart surgery from 11 to either six or seven.”  … continues

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Transferring children to and from theatre. RCN position statement and guidance for good practice – Royal College of Nursing – 21 July 2011

Posted on August 10, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Surgery | Tags: |

Transferring children to and from theatre. RCN position statement and guidance for good practice – Royal College of Nursing – 21 July 2011
ISBN: 978-1-906633-77-6

“Abstract:
Undergoing surgery can be a very stressful time for a child and their family. It is well recognised that family involvement reduces anxiety, for example, a family member accompanying the child to the anaesthetic room and being in the recovery area when the child wakes up. The results of a study by the RCN Children’s Surgical Nursing Forum highlighted an absence of standards for the transfer of children to and from the operating theatre. This publication aims to support health care staff to develop locally agreed guidelines for the assessment and management of children and young people being transferred between hospital departments, ensuring they are safely transferred to and from theatre.”

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Autism in Australia, 2009 – ABS – Released 27 July 2011

Posted on August 2, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Autism in Australia, 2009 – ABS – Released 27 July 2011
4428.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics

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The science of prevention for children and youth – July 2011

Posted on August 1, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Preventive Healthcare |

The science of prevention for children and youth.
Stephen R. Zubrick, Sophie S. Havighurst, Ann V. Sanson
Australian Review of Public Affairs vol. 10 no. 1 July 2011: 79-93

“The high prevalence of social, emotional and behavioural health problems in children and young people in Australia, and the high cost and relative ineffectiveness of treatments to ‘cure’ them, lead to the conclusion that the most efficient and cost effective approach is to prevent them from occurring. The challenge is in determining what to prevent and how to do so. While there are complex social and political aspects to prevention, it must also be guided by a solid scientific basis. This paper makes the case that prevention science provides a framework for ensuring that prevention initiatives are founded on robust evidence and implemented in a way that will allow progressive growth in knowledge of ‘what works’ in prevention. The paper examines some of the opportunities and challenges in a shift to an evidence-based prevention agenda to improve the lives of children and young people.”

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Headline indicators for children’s health, development and wellbeing, 2011 – AIHW – 29 July 2011

Posted on August 1, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Status | Tags: |

Headline indicators for children’s health, development and wellbeing, 2011 – AIHW – 29 July 2011

“This report provides the latest available information on how Australia’s children aged 0-12 years are faring according to the Children’s Headline Indicators-19 priority areas covering health status, risk and protective factors, early learning and care, and family and community environments. The Children’s Headline Indicators are designed to help guide and evaluate policy development by measuring progress on agreed priority areas for children, and have been endorsed by Ministerial Councils for health, community and disability services, and education. Australian children are faring well, but results vary between states and territories, and across particular population groups, such as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, and those in remote or socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. It is clear, therefore, that there is scope for further gains across a number of indicators.”

ISBN 978-1-74249-186-8; Cat. no. PHE 144; 151pp

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National outcome measures for early childhood development: development of indicator based reporting framework – AIHW – 20 July 2011

Posted on July 22, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

National outcome measures for early childhood development: development of indicator based reporting framework – AIHW – 20 July 2011

“The Council of Australian Governments released the National Early Childhood Development Strategy, Investing in the Early Years in July 2009. The ECD Outcomes Framework in the strategy focuses on what Australia needs to achieve to fulfil the vision that ‘by 2020 all children have the best start in life to create a better future for themselves and for the nation’. The early years of a child’s life lays the foundation for future health, development, learning and wellbeing. This report outlines the process of developing an indicator-based reporting framework for early childhood development, and establishes a recommended high-level set of indicators to measure progress against the ECD Outcomes Framework in the strategy. It presents the results of a review of existing national and international frameworks related to early childhood development; research evidence on aspects of early childhood development most strongly associated with child health, development and wellbeing outcomes; and outlines the selection process for identifying indicators.”

ISBN 978-1-74249-114-1; Cat. no. PHE 134; 128pp

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An analysis of the regulatory and voluntary landscape concerning the marketing and promotion of foods and drinks to children – National Heart Forum [UK] – June 2011

Posted on July 1, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Dietetics, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion |

An analysis of the regulatory and voluntary landscape concerning the marketing and promotion of foods and drinks to children – National Heart Forum [UK] – June 2011

“A new report published by the NHF in June 2011 maps the national and international regulations and voluntary commitments from businesses affecting food and drink marketing to children in order to identify current gaps and opportunities for action.

With contributions from the National Children’s Bureau, the International Association for the Study of Obesity, the International Business Leaders’ Forum and the Institute for Social Marketing, the report also presents fresh insights from children, young people and parents about their awareness of food marketing techniques and the reported influence on their food and drink choices.

It also presents views from commercial stakeholders drawn from food companies, licensing companies, retailers, advertisers and trade associations. In a case study of the Marine Stewardship Council, the report explores the processes for developing voluntary principles and sets out transferable learning which could be applied in developing voluntary principles to control food marketing to children.”

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Analysis of controls on the marketing and promotion of food and drink to children – National Heart Forum [UK] – 24 June 2011

Posted on June 30, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Dietetics, Public Hlth & Hlth Promotion |

Analysis of controls on the marketing and promotion of food and drink to children – National Heart Forum [UK] – 24 June 2011

“The National Heart Forum (NHF) was commissioned by the Department to undertake an analysis of the regulatory and voluntary landscape concerning the marketing and promotion of food and drink to children. The NHF brought together a consortium of partner organizations to undertake the work.

The study comprised of 4 activities:

1.A mapping exercise of marketing practices, regulations, policies, commitments and proposals relating to food marketing to children;
2.Consultations with corporate stakeholders;
3.Consultations with children, young people and parents;
4.An analysis of the Marine Stewardship Council as a case study from which to draw transferable learning for developing principles of good practice.

The report, which has been peer-reviewed, covers the four elements set out above and contributes to the debate about marketing and promotion of food to children. The report will be considered in the context of the Public Health Responsibility Deal, with the Food Network High Level Steering Group agreeing to return to the issue of promotion of food to children in phase 3 of its work programme (2012/13).”

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Young people, alcohol and influences – Joseph Rowntree Foundation – 17 June 2011

Posted on June 29, 2011. Filed under: Alcohol & Drug Dep., Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Young people, alcohol and influences – Joseph Rowntree Foundation – 17 June 2011

Pamela Bremner et al.

“This report presents the findings from a major study of young people and their relationship with alcohol, and explores the wide range of influences on their drinking.

This study differs from other research: it develops evidence of how different domains of influence work together, understanding their relative importance in tackling different patterns of drinking among different groups.

The study involved a survey of 5,700 teenagers aged 13–14 (Year 9) and 15–16 (Year 11) in schools in England and data was statistically modelled to highlight the strongest influences on and predictors of young people’s drinking.

The report:

  • examines circumstances surrounding young people’s first time drinking, their current drinking patterns (including levels of consumption), and their experiences of drunkenness; and
  • develops our understanding of what really influences young people’s drinking patterns by identifying the domains and indicators that have the strongest relationship with their behaviour.”
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Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies – Institute of Medicine – 23 June 2011

Posted on June 24, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Preventive Healthcare | Tags: , |

Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies – Institute of Medicine – 23 June 2011
Full text  
 
“Even the youngest children in the United States are at risk of becoming obese. Today, almost 10 percent of infants and toddlers carry excess weight for their length, and slightly more than 20 percent of children between the ages of two and five are already overweight or obese. Because early obesity can track into adulthood, efforts to prevent obesity should begin long before a child enters school.

The IOM reviewed factors related to overweight and obesity from birth to age five, with a focus on nutrition, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. In this report, the IOM recommends actions that healthcare professionals, caregivers, and policymakers can take to prevent obesity in children five and younger. Pediatricians and other healthcare professionals have an important opportunity to make parents aware of their child’s excess weight early on, and the IOM recommends that healthcare professionals measure weight and height or length in a standardized way, as well as pay attention to obesity risk factors, such as rate of weight gain and parental weight, at routine pediatric visits. In addition, the IOM recommends that parents and child care providers keep children active throughout the day and provide them with diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and low in energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Caregivers also should limit young children’s screen time and ensure that children sleep an adequate amount each day. What happens to children during the first years of life is important to their current and future health and well-being.”

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Prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in Australian children, 2008 – AIHW – 17 June 2011

Posted on June 23, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Diabetes | Tags: |

Prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in Australian children, 2008 – AIHW – 17 June 2011

“Type 1 diabetes is a serious, life-long disease which causes a major health, social and economic burden for individuals with the disease, their families and the community. Prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in Australian children, 2008 presents for the first time estimates of the prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years in 2008, based on Australia’s National Diabetes Register data. In 2008, it is estimated that over 5,700 children aged 0-14 years had Type 1 diabetes in Australia. The prevalence rate increased with age and varied by state and territory. Assuming that new cases of Type 1 diabetes in 0-14 year old children continue increasing at the rate observed between 2000 and 2008, it is estimated that the prevalence rate will increase by 10% between 2008 and 2013.”

ISBN 978-1-74249-172-1; Cat. no. CVD 54; 29pp

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Young Australians: their health and wellbeing 2011 – AIHW – 10 June 2011

Posted on June 14, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Status | Tags: |

Young Australians: their health and wellbeing 2011 – AIHW – 10 June 2011

“This report is the fourth in a series of national statistical reports on young people aged 12-24 years, produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. It provides the latest available information on how Australia’s young people are faring according to a set of national indicators of health and wellbeing. Death rates have fallen considerably among young people, mainly due to declines in injury deaths. Most young people are achieving national minimum standards for reading, writing and numeracy, are fully engaged in study or work, and have strong support networks. There are some favourable trends in risk and protective factors, such as declines in smoking and illicit substance use. But it is not all good news. There is a high rate of mental disorders among young people, and road transport accidents, although continuing to decline, are still a major cause of death among young males. Too many young people are overweight or obese, are not doing sufficient physical activity or eating enough fruit and vegetables, and are drinking alcohol at risky levels. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are far more likely to be disadvantaged across a broad range of indicators.”

ISBN 978-1-74249-171-4; Cat. no. PHE 140; 250pp.

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Health care service standards in caring for neonates, children and young people – Royal College of Nursing – 28 April 2011

Posted on May 20, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Nursing | Tags: |

Health care service standards in caring for neonates, children and young people – Royal College of Nursing – 28 April 2011

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SCIE Research briefing 37: Mental health service transitions for young people – UK – May 2011

Posted on May 20, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol |

SCIE Research briefing 37: Mental health service transitions for young people – UK – May 2011

By Isabelle Brodie, Rebecca Goldman and Janet Clapton

Published: May 2011

“This briefing looks at recent research literature (since 2000) on the move from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adults’ services for young people with psychological, emotional or behavioural problems, referred to as ‘mental health service transitions’. Young people may move to adult mental health services (AMHS) or need alternative support in young adulthood. Despite evidence of some promising and innovative practice, this is an issue of longstanding concern to young people, their families, practitioners and policy-makers, both in the UK and abroad.

This briefing asks:

What do professionals, young people, parents, carers and families think about mental health service transitions and what has their experience been?
What evidence is there for good practice and service models in supporting successful service transitions?”

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Report of the Inquiry into the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people in Western Australia – 5 May 2011

Posted on May 9, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol |

Report of the Inquiry into the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people in Western Australia – 5 May 2011

“The Commissioner for Children and Young People WA Michelle Scott has conducted an independent Inquiry into the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people in Western Australia.

The purpose of the Inquiry was to report on the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people and make recommendations that provide clear direction for action on how to strengthen mental health and wellbeing from pregnancy through to adulthood.

The Inquiry considered the whole spectrum of children and young people’s mental health needs, including promotion, prevention, early intervention and treatment services from the very earliest years of a child’s life.

The Inquiry made 54 recommendations to improve the mental health of children and young people in Western Australia, providing a road map of what needs to be done at the Commonwealth and State levels and in the government and non-government community-based sector. “

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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child safety – AIHW – 5 May 2011

Posted on May 6, 2011. Filed under: Aboriginal TI Health, Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child safety – AIHW – 5 May 2011

“This paper provides an overview of key measures of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child safety, presenting a range of information relating to child injury and violence; child protection; and juvenile justice. National data show that Indigenous children are over-represented across a range of measures¿for example, Indigenous children were 5 times as likely as non-Indigenous children to experience a hospital separation for assault; 8 times as likely to be the subject of substantiated child abuse or neglect; and 15 times as likely to be under juvenile justice supervision.”

ISBN 978-1-74249-146-2; Cat. no. IHW 50; 20pp        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

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Facing the Future: Standards for Paediatric Services – Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health – 21 April 2011

Posted on April 29, 2011. Filed under: Acute Care, Child Health / Paediatrics, Clin Governance / Risk Mgmt / Quality | Tags: |

Facing the Future: Standards for Paediatric Services – Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health – 21 April 2011

RCPCH
Press release
 

“In this document the RCPCH specifies ten service standards, all of which have been approved by the College Council. The College considers the standards to represent a minimum requirement for all acute general paediatric services. Each standard is accompanied by an explanatory text that indicates in more detail what the standard is seeking to achieve, and how it will be implemented.”

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Child and Adolescent Health and Health Care Quality: Measuring What Matters – Institute of Medicine – 25 April 2011

Posted on April 27, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Research | Tags: |

Child and Adolescent Health and Health Care Quality: Measuring What Matters – Institute of Medicine – 25 April 2011

Full text online 

“Type: Consensus Report

Health and health care quality measures can provide valuable information about the health status of children and adolescents, as well as the outcomes associated with medical care, policy, and social programs. Despite the fact that the U.S. government currently supports hundreds of data sets and measures through federal surveys and administrative data systems, the United States lacks robust national- and state-level information about the health status or health care quality of children and adolescents, particularly in areas that could provide guidance to policy makers and health care providers.

In the Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009, Congress directed the IOM and the National Research Council (NRC) to evaluate the state of efforts to measure child and adolescent health and the quality of their health care services. The IOM found that the lack of standardization between data sets, as well as the lack of information on physical and social environments, limits researchers’ ability to accurately assess the data. To help overcome these barriers, the IOM recommends that HHS provide leadership on standardization in key data areas and guide other improvements to measurement. In addition, the IOM recommends a stepwise approach (see Figure) for improving data sources and measures of health and health care quality for children and adolescents. The approach is designed to stimulate and support collaborative efforts among federal and state agencies and key stakeholder groups.”

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Children and Young People’s Emotional Wellbeing and Mental Health National Support Team. The learning: ‘What good looks like’ [UK] – 12 April 2011

Posted on April 21, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Mental Health Psychi Psychol |

Children and Young People’s Emotional Wellbeing and Mental Health National Support Team. The learning: ‘What good looks like’ [UK] – 12 April 2011

Document type: Guidance
Author: Department of Health

“The Children and Young People’s Emotional Wellbeing and Mental Health National Support Team helped Local Authorities, Primary Care Trusts, health organisations, Children’s Trusts and other statutory and voluntary partners to:

identify opportunities in relation to improving their commissioning and delivery systems to achieve better outcomes for children and young people  with respect to emotional well-being and mental health; and
review the whole system from prevention through to specialist services.

This document is based on the learning from the Team’s visits as well as the evidence of what works. It outlines the key elements of ‘What good looks like’ in terms of improving outcomes locally for the emotional wellbeing of all children and young people and children and young people with a specific mental health need.”

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Strategic High Impact Changes: Childhood Obesity National Support Team [UK] – March 2011

Posted on April 21, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

Strategic High Impact Changes: Childhood Obesity National Support Team [UK] – March 2011

“A distilation of the learning from the work of the Childhood Obesity NST over the past 3 years, the document aims to share intelligence, highlight good practice and support the future strategic direction of local areas in tackling childhood obesity. Local areas could use this approach when analysing whether a population level improvements could be achieved from a set of bestpractice and established interventions. This is offered as useful resource for commissioners: use is NOT mandatory.”

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Toward an Integrated Science of Families – Workshop Report – Institute of Medicine – 18 March 2011

Posted on March 21, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Research | Tags: |

Toward an Integrated Science of Families – Workshop Report – Institute of Medicine – 18 March 2011

“How do you conduct research on the impact of family environments and relationships on children and adolescents?  In the United States, the growing diversity of what constitutes “family” presents an increasing variety of answers. The majority of families with children still consist of two married biological parents, but a growing number consist of two unmarried biological parents, single mothers or fathers, stepparents, adoptive parents, or same-sex parents. In addition, children may live with siblings, half siblings, or stepsiblings, and have extended family members that play an important part in their daily lives. These complexities of family life are challenging the methods of researchers who frequently use approaches that are designed to best assess traditional family structures.   By modifying their surveys and field work, researchers may be better able to understand the influence of family environments on children.

The IOM held a workshop July 13-14, 2010, to examine the methodologies used to conduct research on families. Participants discussed recent research that contributes to understanding how families affect children; methods of researching families; and opportunities to improve family research. This document summarizes the workshop.”

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Early years interventions to address health inequalities in London – the economic case – Greater London Authority – January 2011

Posted on February 21, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Health Economics | Tags: |

Early years interventions to address health inequalities in London – the economic case – Greater London Authority – January 2011

ISBN 978-1-84781-416-6

“This report provides evidence for and analysis of the case for investment in early years interventions to address health inequalities in London. The evidence clearly shows that well designed and implemented early years programmes can have significant benefits in terms of life-long health, educational attainment, social, emotional and economic wellbeing and reduced involvement in crime that far outweigh their costs.”

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Toward Standardization of Benefit-Cost Analyses of Early Childhood Interventions – RAND – 2011

Posted on February 11, 2011. Filed under: Child Health / Paediatrics, Clin Governance / Risk Mgmt / Quality, Health Economics | Tags: |

Toward Standardization of Benefit-Cost Analyses of Early Childhood Interventions
by Lynn A. Karoly

“A growing body of benefit-cost analyses (BCAs) of early childhood programs has been prompted by the increased demand for results-based accountability when allocating public and private sector resources. While the BCAs of early childhood programs serve to make such investments more compelling, there are limitations in the current state of the art, including a lack of standardization in the BCA methods used, from discount rates to shadow prices. The objective of this paper is to delineate a set of standards for conducting BCAs of early childhood programs. The paper reviews the existing evidence of the economic returns from early childhood programs that serve children and families in the first five years of life, discusses the challenges that arise in applying the BCA methodology such programs, highlights the variation in current methods used, and proposes a set of standards for applying the BCA methodology to early childhood programs. The recommendations concern issues such as the discount rate to use and the age to which costs and benefits should be discounted; stakeholder disaggregation; outcomes to value, the associated values, and projections of future outcomes; accounting for uncertainty; sensitivity analysis; and reporting of results. The proposed standards can guide the choices that analysts need to make about the methods to use when performing BCAs for one or more early childhood programs and they can support greater transparency in the results the analysts provide. The standards can also support consumers of the BCA results in their need to understand the methods employed and the comparability across different studies.”

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SYNAR Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales: Fiscal Year 2009 (US Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration) – Published December 2010

Posted on January 25, 2011. Filed under: Alcohol & Drug Dep., Child Health / Paediatrics | Tags: |

SYNAR Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales: Fiscal Year 2009 (US Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration) – Published December 2010

“Details trends in sales of tobacco to minors, and the success of state compliance with the Synar Amendment requiring laws against the sales of tobacco to youths. Identifies common characteristics of states that reach compliancy goals and stresses the importance of prevention in decreasing teen tobacco use.”

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